tetratricopeptide repeat domain 21B
The information on this page was automatically extracted from online scientific databases.
From NCBI Gene:
This gene encodes a member of TTC21 family, containing several tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) domains. This protein is localized to the cilium axoneme, and may play a role in retrograde intraflagellar transport in cilia. Mutations in this gene are associated with various ciliopathies, nephronophthisis 12, and asphyxiating thoracic dystrophy 4. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2011]
Component of the IFT complex A (IFT-A), a complex required for retrograde ciliary transport. Negatively modulates the SHH signal transduction.
Covered on Genetics Home Reference:
From NCBI Gene:
- Nephronophthisis 12
- Asphyxiating thoracic dystrophy 4
Joubert syndrome 11 (JBTS11): A disorder presenting with cerebellar ataxia, oculomotor apraxia, hypotonia, neonatal breathing abnormalities and psychomotor delay. Neuroradiologically, it is characterized by cerebellar vermian hypoplasia/aplasia, thickened and reoriented superior cerebellar peduncles, and an abnormally large interpeduncular fossa, giving the appearance of a molar tooth on transaxial slices (molar tooth sign). Additional variable features include retinal dystrophy and renal disease. [MIM:613820]
Nephronophthisis 12 (NPHP12): An autosomal recessive disorder resulting in end-stage renal disease. It is a progressive tubulo-interstitial kidney disorder histologically characterized by modifications of the tubules with thickening of the basement membrane, interstitial fibrosis and, in the advanced stages, medullary cysts. Some patients manifest extra-renal features including retinal, skeletal and central nervous system defects. [MIM:613820]
Bardet-Biedl syndrome (BBS): A syndrome characterized by usually severe pigmentary retinopathy, early-onset obesity, polydactyly, hypogenitalism, renal malformation and mental retardation. Secondary features include diabetes mellitus, hypertension and congenital heart disease. Bardet-Biedl syndrome inheritance is autosomal recessive, but three mutated alleles (two at one locus, and a third at a second locus) may be required for clinical manifestation of some forms of the disease. [MIM:209900]
Short-rib thoracic dysplasia 4 with or without polydactyly (SRTD4): A form of short-rib thoracic dysplasia, a group of autosomal recessive ciliopathies that are characterized by a constricted thoracic cage, short ribs, shortened tubular bones, and a 'trident' appearance of the acetabular roof. Polydactyly is variably present. Non-skeletal involvement can include cleft lip/palate as well as anomalies of major organs such as the brain, eye, heart, kidneys, liver, pancreas, intestines, and genitalia. Some forms of the disease are lethal in the neonatal period due to respiratory insufficiency secondary to a severely restricted thoracic cage, whereas others are compatible with life. Disease spectrum encompasses Ellis-van Creveld syndrome, asphyxiating thoracic dystrophy (Jeune syndrome), Mainzer-Saldino syndrome, and short rib-polydactyly syndrome. [MIM:613819]
Ciliary dysfunction leads to a broad spectrum of disorders, collectively termed ciliopathies. Overlapping clinical features include retinal degeneration, renal cystic disease, skeletal abnormalities, fibrosis of various organ, and a complex range of anatomical and functional defects of the central and peripheral nervous system. The ciliopathy range of diseases includes Meckel-Gruber syndrome, Bardet-Biedl syndrome, Joubert syndrome, nephronophtisis, Senior-Loken syndrome, and Jeune asphyxiating thoracic dystrophy among others. TTC21B is causally associated with diverse ciliopathies, and also acts as a modifier gene across the ciliopathy spectrum. TTC21B mutations interact in trans with mutations in other ciliopathy-causing genes and contribute to disease manifestation and severity.