tet methylcytosine dioxygenase 1
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From NCBI Gene:
DNA methylation is an epigenetic mechanism that is important for controlling gene expression. The protein encoded by this gene is a demethylase that belongs to the TET (ten-eleven translocation) family. Members of the TET protein family play a role in the DNA methylation process and gene activation. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2015]
Dioxygenase that catalyzes the conversion of the modified genomic base 5-methylcytosine (5mC) into 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) and plays a key role in active DNA demethylation. Also mediates subsequent conversion of 5hmC into 5-formylcytosine (5fC), and conversion of 5fC to 5-carboxylcytosine (5caC). Conversion of 5mC into 5hmC, 5fC and 5caC probably constitutes the first step in cytosine demethylation. Methylation at the C5 position of cytosine bases is an epigenetic modification of the mammalian genome which plays an important role in transcriptional regulation. In addition to its role in DNA demethylation, plays a more general role in chromatin regulation. Preferentially binds to CpG-rich sequences at promoters of both transcriptionally active and Polycomb-repressed genes. Involved in the recruitment of the O-GlcNAc transferase OGT to CpG-rich transcription start sites of active genes, thereby promoting histone H2B GlcNAcylation by OGT. Also involved in transcription repression of a subset of genes through recruitment of transcriptional repressors to promoters. Involved in the balance between pluripotency and lineage commitment of cells it plays a role in embryonic stem cells maintenance and inner cell mass cell specification. Plays an important role in the tumorigenicity of glioblastoma cells. TET1-mediated production of 5hmC acts as a recruitment signal for the CHTOP-methylosome complex to selective sites on the chromosome, where it methylates H4R3 and activates the transcription of genes involved in glioblastomagenesis (PubMed:25284789). Binds preferentially to DNA containing cytidine-phosphate-guanosine (CpG) dinucleotides over CpH (H=A, T, and C), hemimethylated-CpG and hemimethylated-hydroxymethyl-CpG (PubMed:29276034).
A chromosomal aberration involving TET1 may be a cause of acute leukemias (PubMed:12646957). Translocation t(10;11)(q22;q23) with KMT2A/MLL1. This is a rare chromosomal translocation 5' KMT2A/MLL1-TET1 3' (PubMed:12124344, PubMed:12646957).