SYNGAP1 gene

synaptic Ras GTPase activating protein 1

The SYNGAP1 gene provides instructions for making a protein, called SynGAP, that plays an important role in nerve cells in the brain. SynGAP is found at the junctions between nerve cells (synapses) where cell-to-cell communication takes place. Connected nerve cells compose the "wiring" in the circuitry of the brain. Synapses are able to change and adapt over time, rewiring brain circuits, which is critical for learning and memory. SynGAP helps regulate synapse adaptations and promotes proper brain wiring. The protein's function is particularly important during a critical period of early brain development that affects future cognitive ability.

At least 40 mutations in the SYNGAP1 gene have been found to cause SYNGAP1-related intellectual disability. In addition to mild-to-moderate intellectual disability, this condition commonly features other neurological problems, including recurrent seizures (epilepsy) and developmental disorders that affect communication and social interaction (autism spectrum disorders). Gene mutations involved in SYNGAP1-related intellectual disability prevent the production of functional SynGAP protein from one copy of the gene, reducing the protein's activity in cells. Studies show that a reduction of SynGAP activity can have multiple effects in nerve cells, including pushing synapses to develop (mature) too early. The changes triggered by a reduction of SynGAP activity disrupt the synaptic adaptations in the brain that underlie learning and memory, leading to cognitive impairment and other neurological problems characteristic of SYNGAP1-related intellectual disability.

Cytogenetic Location: 6p21.3, which is the short (p) arm of chromosome 6 at position 21.3

Molecular Location: base pairs 33,420,070 to 33,453,689 on chromosome 6 (Homo sapiens Annotation Release 108, GRCh38.p7) (NCBI)

Cytogenetic Location: 6p21.3, which is the short (p) arm of chromosome 6 at position 21.3
  • KIAA1938
  • MRD5
  • neuronal RasGAP
  • Ras GTPase-activating protein SynGAP
  • ras/Rap GTPase-activating protein SynGAP
  • RASA5
  • synaptic Ras GTPase-activating protein 1
  • synaptic Ras GTPase activating protein 1 homolog
  • synaptic Ras GTPase activating protein, 135kDa
  • SYNGAP