The information on this page was automatically extracted from online scientific databases.
From NCBI Gene:
This gene encodes a member of the syntaxin superfamily. Syntaxins are nervous system-specific proteins implicated in the docking of synaptic vesicles with the presynaptic plasma membrane. Syntaxins possess a single C-terminal transmembrane domain, a SNARE [Soluble NSF (N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive fusion protein)-Attachment protein REceptor] domain (known as H3), and an N-terminal regulatory domain (Habc). Syntaxins bind synaptotagmin in a calcium-dependent fashion and interact with voltage dependent calcium and potassium channels via the C-terminal H3 domain. This gene product is a key molecule in ion channel regulation and synaptic exocytosis. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene.[provided by RefSeq, Sep 2009]
Plays an essential role in hormone and neurotransmitter calcium-dependent exocytosis and endocytosis (PubMed:26635000). Part of the SNARE (Soluble NSF Attachment Receptor) complex composed of SNAP25, STX1A and VAMP2 which mediates the fusion of synaptic vesicles with the presynaptic plasma membrane. STX1A and SNAP25 are localized on the plasma membrane while VAMP2 resides in synaptic vesicles. The pairing of the three SNAREs from the N-terminal SNARE motifs to the C-terminal anchors leads to the formation of the SNARE complex, which brings membranes into close proximity and results in final fusion. Participates in the calcium-dependent regulation of acrosomal exocytosis in sperm (PubMed:23091057). Plays also an important role in the exocytosis of hormones such as insulin or glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) (By similarity).
Covered on Genetics Home Reference:
STX1A is located in the Williams-Beuren syndrome (WBS) critical region. WBS results from a hemizygous deletion of several genes on chromosome 7q11.23, thought to arise as a consequence of unequal crossing over between highly homologous low-copy repeat sequences flanking the deleted region.