sphingomyelin synthase 2
The information on this page was automatically extracted from online scientific databases.
From NCBI Gene:
Sphingomyelin, a major component of cell and Golgi membranes, is made by the transfer of phosphocholine from phosphatidylcholine onto ceramide, with diacylglycerol as a side product. The protein encoded by this gene is an enzyme that catalyzes this reaction primarily at the cell membrane. The synthesis is reversible, and this enzyme can catalyze the reaction in either direction. The encoded protein is required for cell growth. Three transcript variants encoding the same protein have been found for this gene. There is evidence for more variants, but the full-length nature of their transcripts has not been determined.[provided by RefSeq, Oct 2008]
Sphingomyelin synthases synthesize the sphingolipid, sphingomyelin, through transfer of the phosphatidyl head group, phosphatidylcholine, on to the primary hydroxyl of ceramide (PubMed:30779713). The reaction is bidirectional depending on the respective levels of the sphingolipid and ceramide. Plasma membrane SMS2 can also convert phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) to ceramide phosphatidylethanolamine (CPE). Major form in liver. Required for cell growth in certain cell types. Regulator of cell surface levels of ceramide, an important mediator of signal transduction and apoptosis. Regulation of sphingomyelin (SM) levels at the cell surface affects insulin sensitivity. Involved in the regulation of bone mineralization (PubMed:30779713).
From NCBI Gene:
- Doughnut lesions of skull, familial
Calvarial doughnut lesions with bone fragility (CDL): A rare autosomal dominant bone disease characterized by low bone density, distinctive X-ray translucencies of the skull, multiple fractures, elevated serum alkaline phosphatase, and dental caries. Patients present with childhood onset of primary osteoporosis and typical sclerotic doughnut-shaped lesions in the cranial bones. [MIM:126550]
Calvarial doughnut lesions with bone fragility and spondylometaphyseal dysplasia (CDLSMD): A severe form of calvarial doughnut lesions with bone fragility, a rare autosomal dominant disease characterized by low bone density, distinctive X-ray translucencies of the skull, multiple fractures, elevated serum alkaline phosphatase, and dental caries. CDLSMD patients show neonatal onset of fractures, severe short stature, marked cranial sclerosis, and spondylometaphyseal dysplasia. [MIM:126550]