SET nuclear proto-oncogene
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From NCBI Gene:
The protein encoded by this gene inhibits acetylation of nucleosomes, especially histone H4, by histone acetylases (HAT). This inhibition is most likely accomplished by masking histone lysines from being acetylated, and the consequence is to silence HAT-dependent transcription. The encoded protein is part of a complex localized to the endoplasmic reticulum but is found in the nucleus and inhibits apoptosis following attack by cytotoxic T lymphocytes. This protein can also enhance DNA replication of the adenovirus genome. Several transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2011]
Multitasking protein, involved in apoptosis, transcription, nucleosome assembly and histone chaperoning. Isoform 2 anti-apoptotic activity is mediated by inhibition of the GZMA-activated DNase, NME1. In the course of cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL)-induced apoptosis, GZMA cleaves SET, disrupting its binding to NME1 and releasing NME1 inhibition. Isoform 1 and isoform 2 are potent inhibitors of protein phosphatase 2A. Isoform 1 and isoform 2 inhibit EP300/CREBBP and PCAF-mediated acetylation of histones (HAT) and nucleosomes, most probably by masking the accessibility of lysines of histones to the acetylases. The predominant target for inhibition is histone H4. HAT inhibition leads to silencing of HAT-dependent transcription and prevents active demethylation of DNA. Both isoforms stimulate DNA replication of the adenovirus genome complexed with viral core proteins; however, isoform 2 specific activity is higher.