REST gene

RE1 silencing transcription factor

The information on this page was automatically extracted from online scientific databases.

From NCBI Gene:

This gene was initially identified as a transcriptional repressor that represses neuronal genes in non-neuronal tissues. However, depending on the cellular context, this gene can act as either an oncogene or a tumor suppressor. The encoded protein is a member of the Kruppel-type zinc finger transcription factor family. It represses transcription by binding a DNA sequence element called the neuron-restrictive silencer element. The protein is also found in undifferentiated neuronal progenitor cells and it is thought that this repressor may act as a master negative regulator of neurogenesis. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been described. [provided by RefSeq, May 2018]

From UniProt:

Isoform 3: Binds to the 3' region of the neuron-restrictive silencer element (NRSE), with lower affinity than full-length REST isoform 1 (By similarity). Exhibits weaker repressor activity compared to isoform 1 (PubMed:11779185). May negatively regulate the repressor activity of isoform 1 by binding to isoform 1, thereby preventing its binding to NRSE and leading to derepression of target genes (PubMed:11779185). However, in another study, does not appear to be implicated in repressor activity of a NRSE motif-containing reporter construct nor in inhibitory activity on the isoform 1 transcriptional repressor activity (PubMed:11741002). Post-transcriptional inactivation of REST by SRRM4-dependent alternative splicing into isoform 3 is required in mechanosensory hair cells in the inner ear for derepression of neuronal genes and hearing (By similarity).

Transcriptional repressor which binds neuron-restrictive silencer element (NRSE) and represses neuronal gene transcription in non-neuronal cells (PubMed:12399542, PubMed:26551668, PubMed:7697725, PubMed:7871435, PubMed:8568247, PubMed:11741002, PubMed:11779185). Restricts the expression of neuronal genes by associating with two distinct corepressors, SIN3A and RCOR1, which in turn recruit histone deacetylase to the promoters of REST-regulated genes (PubMed:10449787, PubMed:10734093). Mediates repression by recruiting the BHC complex at RE1/NRSE sites which acts by deacetylating and demethylating specific sites on histones, thereby acting as a chromatin modifier (By similarity). Transcriptional repression by REST-CDYL via the recruitment of histone methyltransferase EHMT2 may be important in transformation suppression (PubMed:19061646). Represses the expression of SRRM4 in non-neural cells to prevent the activation of neural-specific splicing events and to prevent production of REST isoform 3 (By similarity). Repressor activity may be inhibited by forming heterodimers with isoform 3, thereby preventing binding to NRSE or binding to corepressors and leading to derepression of target genes (PubMed:11779185). Also maintains repression of neuronal genes in neural stem cells, and allows transcription and differentiation into neurons by dissociation from RE1/NRSE sites of target genes (By similarity). Thereby is involved in maintaining the quiescent state of adult neural stem cells and preventing premature differentiation into mature neurons (PubMed:21258371). Plays a role in the developmental switch in synaptic NMDA receptor composition during postnatal development, by repressing GRIN2B expression and thereby altering NMDA receptor properties from containing primarily GRIN2B to primarily GRIN2A subunits (By similarity). Acts as a regulator of osteoblast differentiation (By similarity). Key repressor of gene expression in hypoxia; represses genes in hypoxia by direct binding to an RE1/NRSE site on their promoter regions (PubMed:27531581). May also function in stress resistance in the brain during aging; possibly by regulating expression of genes involved in cell death and in the stress response (PubMed:24670762). Repressor of gene expression in the hippocampus after ischemia by directly binding to RE1/NRSE sites and recruiting SIN3A and RCOR1 to promoters of target genes, thereby promoting changes in chromatin modifications and ischemia-induced cell death (By similarity). After ischemia, might play a role in repression of miR-132 expression in hippocampal neurons, thereby leading to neuronal cell death (By similarity). Negatively regulates the expression of SRRM3 in breast cancer cell lines (PubMed:26053433).

Covered on Genetics Home Reference:

From NCBI Gene:

  • FIBROMATOSIS, GINGIVAL, 5
  • Wilms tumor 6

From UniProt:

Wilms tumor 6 (WT6): A pediatric malignancy of kidney, and the most common childhood abdominal malignancy. It is caused by the uncontrolled multiplication of renal stem, stromal, and epithelial cells. [MIM:616806]

An intronic variant that affects alternative splicing of REST into isoform 3 and inactivation of REST repressor activity is associated with progressive hearing loss and deafness.

Fibromatosis, gingival, 5 (GINGF5): An autosomal dominant form of hereditary gingival fibromatosis, a rare condition characterized by a slow, progressive overgrowth of the gingiva. The excess gingival tissue can cover part of or the entire crown, and can result in diastemas, teeth displacement, or retention of primary or impacted teeth. [MIM:617626]

Cytogenetic Location: 4q12, which is the long (q) arm of chromosome 4 at position 12

Molecular Location: base pairs 56,907,900 to 56,935,847 on chromosome 4 (Homo sapiens Updated Annotation Release 109.20190607, GRCh38.p13) (NCBI)

Cytogenetic Location: 4q12, which is the long (q) arm of chromosome 4 at position 12
  • DFNA27
  • GINGF5
  • HGF5
  • NRSF
  • WT6
  • XBR