protein kinase, DNA-activated, catalytic subunit
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From NCBI Gene:
This gene encodes the catalytic subunit of the DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK). It functions with the Ku70/Ku80 heterodimer protein in DNA double strand break repair and recombination. The protein encoded is a member of the PI3/PI4-kinase family.[provided by RefSeq, Jul 2010]
Serine/threonine-protein kinase that acts as a molecular sensor for DNA damage. Involved in DNA non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) required for double-strand break (DSB) repair and V(D)J recombination (PubMed:11955432, PubMed:12649176, PubMed:14734805). Must be bound to DNA to express its catalytic properties. Promotes processing of hairpin DNA structures in V(D)J recombination by activation of the hairpin endonuclease artemis (DCLRE1C) (PubMed:11955432). The assembly of the DNA-PK complex at DNA ends is also required for the NHEJ ligation step (PubMed:15574326, PubMed:11955432, PubMed:12649176, PubMed:14734805). Required to protect and align broken ends of DNA (PubMed:15574326, PubMed:11955432, PubMed:12649176, PubMed:14734805). May also act as a scaffold protein to aid the localization of DNA repair proteins to the site of damage (PubMed:15574326, PubMed:11955432, PubMed:12649176, PubMed:14734805). Found at the ends of chromosomes, suggesting a further role in the maintenance of telomeric stability and the prevention of chromosomal end fusion. Also involved in modulation of transcription (PubMed:15574326, PubMed:11955432, PubMed:12649176, PubMed:14734805). As part of the DNA-PK complex, involved in the early steps of ribosome assembly by promoting the processing of precursor rRNA into mature 18S rRNA in the small-subunit processome (PubMed:32103174). Binding to U3 small nucleolar RNA, recruits PRKDC and XRCC5/Ku86 to the small-subunit processome (PubMed:32103174). Recognizes the substrate consensus sequence [ST]-Q (PubMed:15574326, PubMed:11955432, PubMed:12649176, PubMed:14734805). Phosphorylates 'Ser-139' of histone variant H2AX, thereby regulating DNA damage response mechanism (PubMed:14627815, PubMed:16046194). Phosphorylates DCLRE1C, c-Abl/ABL1, histone H1, HSPCA, c-jun/JUN, p53/TP53, PARP1, POU2F1, DHX9, FH, SRF, XRCC1, XRCC1, XRCC4, XRCC5, XRCC6, WRN, MYC and RFA2 (PubMed:2507541, PubMed:2247066, PubMed:1597196, PubMed:8407951, PubMed:8464713, PubMed:9362500, PubMed:9139719, PubMed:10026262, PubMed:10467406, PubMed:12509254, PubMed:11889123, PubMed:14612514, PubMed:14704337, PubMed:16397295, PubMed:26237645, PubMed:28712728). Can phosphorylate C1D not only in the presence of linear DNA but also in the presence of supercoiled DNA (PubMed:9679063). Ability to phosphorylate p53/TP53 in the presence of supercoiled DNA is dependent on C1D (PubMed:9363941). Contributes to the determination of the circadian period length by antagonizing phosphorylation of CRY1 'Ser-588' and increasing CRY1 protein stability, most likely through an indirect mechanism (By similarity). Plays a role in the regulation of DNA virus-mediated innate immune response by assembling into the HDP-RNP complex, a complex that serves as a platform for IRF3 phosphorylation and subsequent innate immune response activation through the cGAS-STING pathway (PubMed:28712728).
From NCBI Gene:
- Immunodeficiency 26 with or without neurologic abnormalities
Immunodeficiency 26 with or without neurologic abnormalities (IMD26): A form of severe combined immunodeficiency characterized by reduced or absent T and B cells, recurrent candidiasis, and lower respiratory tract infections. Some patients show dysmorphic features, severe growth failure, microcephaly, seizures, and impaired neurological functions. [MIM:615966]