primase and DNA directed polymerase
The information on this page was automatically extracted from online scientific databases.
From NCBI Gene:
This gene encodes a DNA primase-polymerase that belongs to a superfamily of archaeao-eukaryotic primases. Members of this family have primase activity, catalyzing the synthesis of short RNA primers that serve as starting points for DNA synthesis, as well as DNA polymerase activity. The encoded protein facilitates DNA damage tolerance by mediating uninterrupted fork progression after UV irradiation and reinitiating DNA synthesis. An allelic variant in this gene is associated with myopia 22. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2016]
DNA primase and DNA polymerase required to tolerate replication-stalling lesions by bypassing them (PubMed:24126761, PubMed:24207056, PubMed:24240614, PubMed:24267451, PubMed:25255211, PubMed:24682820, PubMed:25262353, PubMed:25746449, PubMed:25550423, PubMed:27989484, PubMed:29608762, PubMed:30889508, PubMed:28534480). Required to facilitate mitochondrial and nuclear replication fork progression by initiating de novo DNA synthesis using dNTPs and acting as an error-prone DNA polymerase able to bypass certain DNA lesions (PubMed:24126761, PubMed:24207056, PubMed:24240614, PubMed:24267451, PubMed:25255211, PubMed:24682820, PubMed:25262353, PubMed:25746449, PubMed:25550423, PubMed:27989484, PubMed:29608762, PubMed:30889508, PubMed:30633872, PubMed:28534480). Shows a high capacity to tolerate DNA damage lesions such as 8oxoG and abasic sites in DNA (PubMed:24126761, PubMed:24207056, PubMed:24240614, PubMed:24267451, PubMed:25746449). Provides different translesion synthesis alternatives when DNA replication is stalled: able to synthesize DNA primers downstream of lesions, such as ultraviolet (UV) lesions, R-loops and G-quadruplexes, to allow DNA replication to continue (PubMed:24240614, PubMed:26626482, PubMed:28534480, PubMed:30478192). Can also realign primers ahead of 'unreadable lesions' such as abasic sites and 6-4 photoproduct (6-4 pyrimidine-pyrimidinone), thereby skipping the lesion (PubMed:25746449). Also able to incorporate nucleotides opposite DNA lesions such as 8oxoG, like a regular translesion synthesis DNA polymerase (PubMed:24207056, PubMed:25255211, PubMed:25746449). Also required for reinitiating stalled forks after UV damage during nuclear DNA replication (PubMed:24240614). Required for mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) synthesis and replication, by reinitiating synthesis after UV damage or in the presence of chain-terminating nucleotides (PubMed:24207056). Prevents APOBEC family-mediated DNA mutagenesis by repriming downstream of abasic site to prohibit error-prone translesion synthesis (By similarity). Has non-overlapping function with POLH (PubMed:24240614). In addition to its role in DNA damage response, also required to maintain efficient nuclear and mitochondrial DNA replication in unperturbed cells (PubMed:30715459).
Involved in adaptive response to cisplatin, a chemotherapeutic that causes reversal of replication forks, in cancer cells: reinitiates DNA synthesis past DNA lesions in BRCA1-deficient cancer cells treated with cisplatin via its de novo priming activity (PubMed:31676232). Repriming rescues fork degradation while leading to accumulation of internal ssDNA gaps behind the forks (PubMed:31676232). ATR regulates adaptive response to cisplatin (PubMed:31676232).
Covered on Genetics Home Reference:
From NCBI Gene:
- Myopia 22, autosomal dominant
Myopia 22, autosomal dominant (MYP22): A refractive error of the eye, in which parallel rays from a distant object come to focus in front of the retina, vision being better for near objects than for far. [MIM:615420]