mitochondrially encoded cytochrome c oxidase I
The information on this page was automatically extracted from online scientific databases.
Component of the cytochrome c oxidase, the last enzyme in the mitochondrial electron transport chain which drives oxidative phosphorylation. The respiratory chain contains 3 multisubunit complexes succinate dehydrogenase (complex II, CII), ubiquinol-cytochrome c oxidoreductase (cytochrome b-c1 complex, complex III, CIII) and cytochrome c oxidase (complex IV, CIV), that cooperate to transfer electrons derived from NADH and succinate to molecular oxygen, creating an electrochemical gradient over the inner membrane that drives transmembrane transport and the ATP synthase. Cytochrome c oxidase is the component of the respiratory chain that catalyzes the reduction of oxygen to water. Electrons originating from reduced cytochrome c in the intermembrane space (IMS) are transferred via the dinuclear copper A center (CU(A)) of subunit 2 and heme A of subunit 1 to the active site in subunit 1, a binuclear center (BNC) formed by heme A3 and copper B (CU(B)). The BNC reduces molecular oxygen to 2 water molecules using 4 electrons from cytochrome c in the IMS and 4 protons from the mitochondrial matrix.
Covered on Genetics Home Reference:
From NCBI Gene:
- Deafness, nonsyndromic sensorineural, mitochondrial
- Juvenile myopathy, encephalopathy, lactic acidosis AND stroke
Colorectal cancer (CRC): A complex disease characterized by malignant lesions arising from the inner wall of the large intestine (the colon) and the rectum. Genetic alterations are often associated with progression from premalignant lesion (adenoma) to invasive adenocarcinoma. Risk factors for cancer of the colon and rectum include colon polyps, long-standing ulcerative colitis, and genetic family history. [MIM:114500]
Recurrent myoglobinuria mitochondrial (RM-MT): Recurrent myoglobinuria is characterized by recurrent attacks of rhabdomyolysis (necrosis or disintegration of skeletal muscle) associated with muscle pain and weakness, and followed by excretion of myoglobin in the urine. [MIM:550500]
Mitochondrial complex IV deficiency (MT-C4D): A disorder of the mitochondrial respiratory chain with heterogeneous clinical manifestations, ranging from isolated myopathy to severe multisystem disease affecting several tissues and organs. Features include hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, hepatomegaly and liver dysfunction, hypotonia, muscle weakness, exercise intolerance, developmental delay, delayed motor development and mental retardation. Some affected individuals manifest a fatal hypertrophic cardiomyopathy resulting in neonatal death. A subset of patients manifest Leigh syndrome. [MIM:220110]
MT-CO1 may play a role in the pathogenesis of acquired idiopathic sideroblastic anemia, a disease characterized by inadequate formation of heme and excessive accumulation of iron in mitochondria. Mitochondrial iron overload may be attributable to mutations of mitochondrial DNA because these can cause respiratory chain dysfunction, thereby impairing reduction of ferric iron to ferrous iron. The reduced form of iron is essential to the last step of mitochondrial heme biosynthesis.
Deafness, sensorineural, mitochondrial (DFNM): A form of non-syndromic deafness with maternal inheritance. Affected individuals manifest progressive, postlingual, sensorineural hearing loss involving high frequencies. [MIM:500008]
Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON): A maternally inherited disease resulting in acute or subacute loss of central vision, due to optic nerve dysfunction. Cardiac conduction defects and neurological defects have also been described in some patients. LHON results from primary mitochondrial DNA mutations affecting the respiratory chain complexes. [MIM:535000]