KDM6A

lysine demethylase 6A

The KDM6A gene provides instructions for making an enzyme called lysine-specific demethylase 6A that is found in many organs and tissues of the body. Lysine-specific demethylase 6A functions as a histone demethylase. Histone demethylases are enzymes that modify proteins called histones. Histones are structural proteins that attach (bind) to DNA and give chromosomes their shape. By removing a molecule called a methyl group from histones (a process called demethylation), histone demethylases control (regulate) the activity of certain genes. Lysine-specific demethylase 6A appears to regulate certain genes that are important for development.

Lysine-specific demethylase 6A is also believed to act as a tumor suppressor, which means it normally helps prevent cells from growing and dividing in an uncontrolled way.

At least five mutations in the KDM6A gene have been identified in people with Kabuki syndrome, a disorder characterized by distinctive facial features, intellectual disability, and abnormalities affecting other parts of the body.

The KDM6A gene mutations associated with Kabuki syndrome delete genetic material in the KDM6A gene sequence or result in a premature stop signal that leads to an abnormally short lysine-specific demethylase 6A enzyme. As a result of these mutations, the enzyme is nonfunctional. A lack of functional lysine-specific demethylase 6A enzyme disrupts its role in histone demethylation and impairs proper regulation of certain genes in many of the body's organs and tissues, resulting in the abnormalities of development and function characteristic of Kabuki syndrome.

Although lysine-specific demethylase 6A is believed to act as a tumor suppressor, a loss of this enzyme's function does not seem to increase cancer risk in people with Kabuki syndrome.

Some KDM6A gene mutations are not inherited but occur during a person's lifetime. Such mutations, which are called somatic mutations, are present only in certain cells. Somatic mutations in the KDM6A gene have been identified in certain cancers. These include cancers of the breast, esophagus, colon, kidney, and brain, and cancers of the blood-forming cells called myeloid leukemia and multiple myeloma. Most of these mutations result in an abnormally short, nonfunctional lysine-specific demethylase 6A enzyme that cannot perform its role as a tumor suppressor, resulting in the development of cancer.

Cytogenetic Location: Xp11.2, which is the short (p) arm of the X chromosome at position 11.2

Molecular Location: base pairs 44,873,175 to 45,112,612 on the X chromosome (Homo sapiens Annotation Release 108, GRCh38.p7) (NCBI)

Cytogenetic Location: Xp11.2, which is the short (p) arm of the X chromosome at position 11.2
  • bA386N14.2
  • bA386N14.2 (ubiquitously transcribed X chromosome tetratricopeptide repeat protein (UTX))
  • histone demethylase UTX
  • KABUK2
  • KDM6A_HUMAN
  • lysine (K)-specific demethylase 6A
  • lysine-specific demethylase 6A
  • ubiquitously transcribed tetratricopeptide repeat protein X-linked
  • ubiquitously-transcribed TPR gene on the X chromosome
  • ubiquitously-transcribed TPR protein on the X chromosome
  • UTX