major histocompatibility complex, class I, A
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From NCBI Gene:
HLA-A belongs to the HLA class I heavy chain paralogues. This class I molecule is a heterodimer consisting of a heavy chain and a light chain (beta-2 microglobulin). The heavy chain is anchored in the membrane. Class I molecules play a central role in the immune system by presenting peptides derived from the endoplasmic reticulum lumen so that they can be recognized by cytotoxic T cells. They are expressed in nearly all cells. The heavy chain is approximately 45 kDa and its gene contains 8 exons. Exon 1 encodes the leader peptide, exons 2 and 3 encode the alpha1 and alpha2 domains, which both bind the peptide, exon 4 encodes the alpha3 domain, exon 5 encodes the transmembrane region, and exons 6 and 7 encode the cytoplasmic tail. Polymorphisms within exon 2 and exon 3 are responsible for the peptide binding specificity of each class one molecule. Typing for these polymorphisms is routinely done for bone marrow and kidney transplantation. Hundreds of HLA-A alleles have been described. The HLA system plays an important role in the occurrence and outcome of infectious diseases, including those caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV). The structural spike and the nucleocapsid proteins of the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, which causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), are reported to contain multiple Class I epitopes with predicted HLA restrictions. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2020]
Allele A*23:01: Interacts with natural killer (NK) cell receptor KIR3DL1 and may contribute to functional maturation of NK cells and self-nonself discrimination during innate immune response.
Allele A*24:02: Presents viral epitopes derived from HIV-1 nef (RYPLTFGWCF), EBV lytic- and latent-cycle antigens BRLF1 (TYPVLEEMF), BMLF1 (DYNFVKQLF) and LMP2 (IYVLVMLVL), SARS-CoV nucleocapsid/N (QFKDNVILL), as well as tumor peptide antigens including PRAME (LYVDSLFFL), all sharing a common signature motif, namely an aromatic residue Tyr or Phe at position 2 and a nonhydrophobic anchor residue Phe, Leu or Iso at the C-terminus (PubMed:9047241, PubMed:12393434, PubMed:24192765, PubMed:20844028). Interacts with natural killer (NK) cell receptor KIR3DL1 and may contribute to functional maturation of NK cells and self-nonself discrimination during innate immune response (PubMed:17182537, PubMed:18502829).
Allele A*29:02: Presents peptides having a common motif, namely a Glu residue at position 2 and Tyr or Leu anchor residues at the C-terminus.
Allele A*02:01: A major allele in human populations, presents immunodominant viral epitopes derived from IAV M/matrix protein 1 (GILGFVFTL), HIV-1 env (TLTSCNTSV), HIV-1 gag-pol (ILKEPVHGV), HTLV-1 Tax (LLFGYPVYV), HBV C/core antigen (FLPSDFFPS), HCMV UL83/pp65 (NLVPMVATV) as well as tumor peptide antigens including MAGEA4 (GVYDGREHTV), WT1 (RMFPNAPYL) and CTAG1A/NY-ESO-1 (SLLMWITQC), all having in common hydrophobic amino acids at position 2 and at the C-terminal anchors.
Allele A*11:01: Presents several immunodominant epitopes derived from HIV-1 gag-pol and HHV-4 EBNA4, containing the peptide motif with Val, Ile, Thr, Leu, Tyr or Phe at position 2 and Lys anchor residue at the C-terminus. Important in the control of HIV-1, EBV and HBV infections.
Allele A*68:01: Presents viral epitopes derived from IAV NP (KTGGPIYKR) and HIV-1 tat (ITKGLGISYGR), having a common signature motif namely, Val or Thr at position 2 and positively charged residues Arg or Lys at the C-terminal anchor.
Allele A*26:01: Presents several epitopes derived from HIV-1 gag-pol (EVIPMFSAL, ETKLGKAGY) and env (LVSDGGPNLY), carrying as anchor residues preferentially Glu at position 1, Val or Thr at position 2 and Tyr at the C-terminus.
Allele A*74:01: Presents immunodominant HIV-1 epitopes derived from gag-pol (GQMVHQAISPR, QIYPGIKVR) and rev (RQIHSISER), carrying an aliphatic residue at position 2 and Arg anchor residue at the C-terminus. May contribute to viral load control in chronic HIV-1 infection.
Antigen-presenting major histocompatibility complex class I (MHCI) molecule. In complex with B2M/beta 2 microglobulin displays primarily viral and tumor-derived peptides on antigen-presenting cells for recognition by alpha-beta T cell receptor (TCR) on HLA-A-restricted CD8-positive T cells, guiding antigen-specific T cell immune response to eliminate infected or transformed cells (PubMed:2456340, PubMed:2784196, PubMed:1402688, PubMed:7504010, PubMed:9862734, PubMed:10449296, PubMed:12138174, PubMed:12393434, PubMed:15893615, PubMed:17189421, PubMed:19543285, PubMed:21498667, PubMed:24192765, PubMed:7694806, PubMed:24395804, PubMed:28250417). May also present self-peptides derived from the signal sequence of secreted or membrane proteins, although T cells specific for these peptides are usually inactivated to prevent autoreactivity (PubMed:25880248, PubMed:7506728, PubMed:7679507). Both the peptide and the MHC molecule are recognized by TCR, the peptide is responsible for the fine specificity of antigen recognition and MHC residues account for the MHC restriction of T cells (PubMed:12796775, PubMed:18275829, PubMed:19542454, PubMed:28250417). Typically presents intracellular peptide antigens of 8 to 13 amino acids that arise from cytosolic proteolysis via IFNG-induced immunoproteasome or via endopeptidase IDE/insulin-degrading enzyme (PubMed:17189421, PubMed:20364150, PubMed:17079320, PubMed:26929325, PubMed:27049119). Can bind different peptides containing allele-specific binding motifs, which are mainly defined by anchor residues at position 2 and 9 (PubMed:7504010, PubMed:9862734).
Allele A*32:01: Interacts with natural killer (NK) cell receptor KIR3DL1 and may contribute to functional maturation of NK cells and self-nonself discrimination during innate immune response.
Allele A*01:01: Presents a restricted peptide repertoire including viral epitopes derived from IAV NP/nucleoprotein (CTELKLSDY), IAV PB1/polymerase basic protein 1 (VSDGGPNLY), HAdV-11 capsid L3/hexon protein (LTDLGQNLLY) as well as tumor peptide antigens including MAGE1 (EADPTGHSY), MAGEA3 (EVDPIGHLY) and WT1 (TSEKRPFMCAY), all having in common a canonical motif with a negatively charged Asp or Glu residue at position 3 and a Tyr anchor residue at the C-terminus (PubMed:1402688, PubMed:7504010, PubMed:17189421, PubMed:20364150, PubMed:25880248, PubMed:30530481, PubMed:19177349, PubMed:24395804, PubMed:26758806). A number of HLA-A*01:01-restricted peptides carry a post-translational modification with oxidation and N-terminal acetylation being the most frequent (PubMed:25880248). Fails to present highly immunogenic peptides from the EBV latent antigens (PubMed:18779413).
Allele A*03:01: Presents viral epitopes derived from IAV NP (ILRGSVAHK), HIV-1 nef (QVPLRPMTYK), HIV-1 gag-pol (AIFQSSMTK) as well as tumor peptide antigens including PMEL (LIYRRRLMK), NODAL (HAYIQSLLK), TRP-2 (RMYNMVPFF), all having in common hydrophobic amino acids at position 2 and Lys or Arg anchor residues at the C-terminus (PubMed:7504010, PubMed:7679507, PubMed:9862734, PubMed:19543285, PubMed:21943705, PubMed:2456340). May also display spliced peptides resulting from the ligation of two separate proteasomal cleavage products that are not contiguous in the parental protein (PubMed:27049119).
Covered on Genetics Home Reference:
From NCBI Gene:
- Susceptibility to severe cutaneous adverse reaction
Alleles A*02:01 and A*24:02 are associated with increased susceptibility to diabetes mellitus, insulin-dependent (IDDM) (PubMed:22245737, PubMed:18802479, PubMed:16731854, PubMed:22522618). In a glucose-dependent way, allele A*02:01 may aberrantly present the signal peptide of preproinsulin (ALWGPDPAAA) on the surface of pancreatic beta cells to autoreactive CD8-positive T cells, potentially driving T-cell mediated cytotoxicity in pancreatic islets (PubMed:22245737, PubMed:18802479). Allele A*24:02 may present the signal peptide of preproinsulin (LWMRLLPLL) and contribute to acute pancreatic beta-cell destruction and early onset of IDDM (PubMed:16731854, PubMed:22522618).
Allele A*29:02 is associated with increased susceptibility to birdshot chorioretinopathy (BSCR). May aberrantly present retinal autoantigens and induce autoimmune uveitis.
Allele A*03:01 is associated with increased susceptibility to multiple sclerosis (MS), an autoimmune disease of the central nervous system (PubMed:10746785). May contribute to the initiation phase of the disease by presenting myelin PLP1 self-peptide (KLIETYFSK) to autoreactive CD8-positive T cells capable of initiating the first autoimmune attacks (PubMed:18953350).
Allele A*26:01 is associated with increased susceptibility to Behcet disease (BD) in the Northeast Asian population. Especially in the HLA-B*51-negative BD populations, HLA-A*26 is significantly associated with the onset of BD.