The information on this page was automatically extracted from online scientific databases.
From NCBI Gene:
This gene encodes the K-type mitochondrial glutaminase. The encoded protein is an phosphate-activated amidohydrolase that catalyzes the hydrolysis of glutamine to glutamate and ammonia. This protein is primarily expressed in the brain and kidney plays an essential role in generating energy for metabolism, synthesizing the brain neurotransmitter glutamate and maintaining acid-base balance in the kidney. Alternate splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2012]
Catalyzes the first reaction in the primary pathway for the renal catabolism of glutamine. Plays a role in maintaining acid-base homeostasis. Regulates the levels of the neurotransmitter glutamate, the main excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain (PubMed:30575854, PubMed:30239721, PubMed:30970188).
Isoform 2: Lacks catalytic activity.
From NCBI Gene:
- EPILEPTIC ENCEPHALOPATHY, EARLY INFANTILE, 71
- GLOBAL DEVELOPMENTAL DELAY, PROGRESSIVE ATAXIA, AND ELEVATED GLUTAMINE
- INFANTILE CATARACT, SKIN ABNORMALITIES, GLUTAMATE EXCESS, AND IMPAIRED INTELLECTUAL DEVELOPMENT
Global developmental delay, progressive ataxia, and elevated glutamine (GDPAG): An autosomal recessive disease characterized by early-onset delay in motor skills, delayed speech, progressive ataxia, and neurologic deterioration. Plasma glutamine is persistently elevated by a factor of 2.5 despite normal plasma ammonia levels. [MIM:618412]
Epileptic encephalopathy, early infantile, 71 (EIEE71): A form of epileptic encephalopathy, a heterogeneous group of severe early-onset epilepsies characterized by refractory seizures, neurodevelopmental impairment, and poor prognosis. Development is normal prior to seizure onset, after which cognitive and motor delays become apparent. EIEE71 is an autosomal recessive form with onset at birth. Death occurs in first weeks of life. [MIM:618328]
Infantile cataract, skin abnormalities, glutamate excess, and impaired intellectual development (CASGID): An autosomal dominant disease characterized by infantile-onset cataract, erythematic subcutaneous nodules, profound developmental delay, self-injurious behavior, and intracerebral glutamate excess. Histopathologic analysis of skin lesions show deep perivascular and periglandular lymphohistiocytic infiltrates and pronounced leukocytoclasia at the surface of the dermis, focal vacuolar alterations, hyperkeratosis, and parakeratosis of the epidermis. [MIM:618339]