growth differentiation factor 1
The information on this page was automatically extracted from online scientific databases.
From NCBI Gene:
This gene encodes a secreted ligand of the TGF-beta (transforming growth factor-beta) superfamily of proteins. Ligands of this family bind various TGF-beta receptors leading to recruitment and activation of SMAD family transcription factors that regulate gene expression. The encoded preproprotein is proteolytically processed to generate each subunit of the disulfide-linked homodimer. Studies in rodents suggest that this protein is involved in the establishment of left-right asymmetry in early embryogenesis and in neural development in later embryogenesis. The encoded protein is translated from a bicistronic mRNA that also encodes ceramide synthase 1. Mutations in this gene are associated with several congenital cardiovascular malformations. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2016]
May mediate cell differentiation events during embryonic development.
Covered on Genetics Home Reference:
From NCBI Gene:
- Bilateral right-sidedness sequence
- Conotruncal heart malformations
- Tetralogy of Fallot
- Transposition of the great arteries, dextro-looped 3
Transposition of the great arteries dextro-looped 3 (DTGA3): A congenital heart defect consisting of complete inversion of the great vessels, so that the aorta incorrectly arises from the right ventricle and the pulmonary artery incorrectly arises from the left ventricle. This creates completely separate pulmonary and systemic circulatory systems, an arrangement that is incompatible with life. The presence or absence of associated cardiac anomalies defines the clinical presentation and surgical management of patients with transposition of the great arteries. [MIM:613854]
Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF): A congenital heart anomaly which consists of pulmonary stenosis, ventricular septal defect, dextroposition of the aorta (aorta is on the right side instead of the left) and hypertrophy of the right ventricle. In this condition, blood from both ventricles (oxygen-rich and oxygen-poor) is pumped into the body often causing cyanosis. [MIM:187500]
Conotruncal heart malformations (CTHM): A group of congenital heart defects involving the outflow tracts. Examples include truncus arteriosus communis, double-outlet right ventricle and transposition of great arteries. Truncus arteriosus communis is characterized by a single outflow tract instead of a separate aorta and pulmonary artery. In transposition of the great arteries, the aorta arises from the right ventricle and the pulmonary artery from the left ventricle. In double outlet of the right ventricle, both the pulmonary artery and aorta arise from the right ventricle. [MIM:217095]
Right atrial isomerism (RAI): A severe complex congenital heart defect resulting from embryonic disruption of proper left-right axis determination. RAI is usually characterized by complete atrioventricular septal defect with a common atrium and univentricular AV connection, total anomalous pulmonary drainage, and transposition or malposition of the great arteries. Affected individuals present at birth with severe cardiac failure. Other associated abnormalities include bilateral trilobed lungs, midline liver, and asplenia, as well as situs inversus affecting other organs. [MIM:208530]