The information on this page was automatically extracted from online scientific databases.
From NCBI Gene:
This gene encodes a member of the hexokinase family of proteins. Hexokinases phosphorylate glucose to produce glucose-6-phosphate, the first step in most glucose metabolism pathways. In contrast to other forms of hexokinase, this enzyme is not inhibited by its product glucose-6-phosphate but remains active while glucose is abundant. The use of multiple promoters and alternative splicing of this gene result in distinct protein isoforms that exhibit tissue-specific expression in the pancreas and liver. In the pancreas, this enzyme plays a role in glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, while in the liver, this enzyme is important in glucose uptake and conversion to glycogen. Mutations in this gene that alter enzyme activity have been associated with multiple types of diabetes and hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2017]
Catalyzes the initial step in utilization of glucose by the beta-cell and liver at physiological glucose concentration. Glucokinase has a high Km for glucose, and so it is effective only when glucose is abundant. The role of GCK is to provide G6P for the synthesis of glycogen. Pancreatic glucokinase plays an important role in modulating insulin secretion. Hepatic glucokinase helps to facilitate the uptake and conversion of glucose by acting as an insulin-sensitive determinant of hepatic glucose usage.
Covered on Genetics Home Reference:
From NCBI Gene:
- Diabetes mellitus type 2
- Maturity-onset diabetes of the young, type 2
- Permanent neonatal diabetes mellitus
- Hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia familial 3
Diabetes mellitus, permanent neonatal (PNDM): A rare form of diabetes distinct from childhood-onset autoimmune diabetes mellitus type 1. It is characterized by insulin-requiring hyperglycemia that is diagnosed within the first months of life. Permanent neonatal diabetes requires lifelong therapy. [MIM:606176]
Familial hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia 3 (HHF3): Most common cause of persistent hypoglycemia in infancy. Unless early and aggressive intervention is undertaken, brain damage from recurrent episodes of hypoglycemia may occur. [MIM:602485]
Diabetes mellitus, non-insulin-dependent (NIDDM): A multifactorial disorder of glucose homeostasis caused by a lack of sensitivity to the body's own insulin. Affected individuals usually have an obese body habitus and manifestations of a metabolic syndrome characterized by diabetes, insulin resistance, hypertension and hypertriglyceridemia. The disease results in long-term complications that affect the eyes, kidneys, nerves, and blood vessels. [MIM:125853]
Maturity-onset diabetes of the young 2 (MODY2): A form of diabetes that is characterized by an autosomal dominant mode of inheritance, onset in childhood or early adulthood (usually before 25 years of age), a primary defect in insulin secretion and frequent insulin-independence at the beginning of the disease. [MIM:125851]