FTO, alpha-ketoglutarate dependent dioxygenase
The information on this page was automatically extracted from online scientific databases.
From NCBI Gene:
This gene is a nuclear protein of the AlkB related non-haem iron and 2-oxoglutarate-dependent oxygenase superfamily but the exact physiological function of this gene is not known. Other non-heme iron enzymes function to reverse alkylated DNA and RNA damage by oxidative demethylation. Studies in mice and humans indicate a role in nervous and cardiovascular systems and a strong association with body mass index, obesity risk, and type 2 diabetes. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2011]
RNA demethylase that mediates oxidative demethylation of different RNA species, such as mRNAs, tRNAs and snRNAs, and acts as a regulator of fat mass, adipogenesis and energy homeostasis (PubMed:22002720, PubMed:26458103, PubMed:28002401, PubMed:30197295, PubMed:26457839, PubMed:25452335). Specifically demethylates N(6)-methyladenosine (m6A) RNA, the most prevalent internal modification of messenger RNA (mRNA) in higher eukaryotes (PubMed:22002720, PubMed:26458103, PubMed:30197295, PubMed:26457839, PubMed:25452335). M6A demethylation by FTO affects mRNA expression and stability (PubMed:30197295). Also able to demethylate m6A in U6 small nuclear RNA (snRNA) (PubMed:30197295). Mediates demethylation of N(6),2'-O-dimethyladenosine cap (m6A(m)), by demethylating the N(6)-methyladenosine at the second transcribed position of mRNAs and U6 snRNA (PubMed:28002401, PubMed:30197295). Demethylation of m6A(m) in the 5'-cap by FTO affects mRNA stability by promoting susceptibility to decapping (PubMed:28002401). Also acts as a tRNA demethylase by removing N(1)-methyladenine from various tRNAs (PubMed:30197295). Has no activity towards 1-methylguanine (PubMed:20376003). Has no detectable activity towards double-stranded DNA (PubMed:20376003). Also able to repair alkylated DNA and RNA by oxidative demethylation: demethylates single-stranded RNA containing 3-methyluracil, single-stranded DNA containing 3-methylthymine and has low demethylase activity towards single-stranded DNA containing 1-methyladenine or 3-methylcytosine (PubMed:18775698, PubMed:20376003). Ability to repair alkylated DNA and RNA is however unsure in vivo (PubMed:18775698, PubMed:20376003). Involved in the regulation of fat mass, adipogenesis and body weight, thereby contributing to the regulation of body size and body fat accumulation (PubMed:18775698, PubMed:20376003). Involved in the regulation of thermogenesis and the control of adipocyte differentiation into brown or white fat cells (PubMed:26287746). Regulates activity of the dopaminergic midbrain circuitry via its ability to demethylate m6A in mRNAs (By similarity). Plays an oncogenic role in a number of acute myeloid leukemias by enhancing leukemic oncogene-mediated cell transformation: acts by mediating m6A demethylation of target transcripts such as MYC, CEBPA, ASB2 and RARA, leading to promote their expression (PubMed:28017614, PubMed:29249359).
Covered on Genetics Home Reference:
From NCBI Gene:
- Body mass index quantitative trait locus 14
- Growth retardation, developmental delay, coarse facies, and early death
Obesity (OBESITY): A condition characterized by an increase of body weight beyond the limitation of skeletal and physical requirements, as the result of excessive accumulation of body fat. [MIM:601665]
Growth retardation, developmental delay, and facial dysmorphism (GDFD): A severe polymalformation syndrome characterized by postnatal growth retardation, microcephaly, severe psychomotor delay, functional brain deficits and characteristic facial dysmorphism. In some patients, structural brain malformations, cardiac defects, genital anomalies, and cleft palate are observed. Early death occurs by the age of 3 years. [MIM:612938]