FOXC2 gene

forkhead box C2

The FOXC2 gene provides instructions for making a protein that plays a critical role in the formation of many organs and tissues before birth. This protein is a transcription factor, which means that it attaches (binds) to specific regions of DNA and helps control the activity of many other genes. Researchers believe that the FOXC2 protein has a role in a variety of developmental processes, such as the formation of veins and the development of the lungs, eyes, kidneys and urinary tract, cardiovascular system, and the transport system for immune cells (lymphatic vessels).

More than 50 mutations in the FOXC2 gene can cause lymphedema-distichiasis syndrome. Most of these mutations insert or delete a few DNA building blocks (nucleotides), which results in a premature stop signal in the instructions for making the FOXC2 protein. These mutations lead to the production of a FOXC2 protein that is abnormally small and cannot effectively attach (bind) to DNA. As a result, the altered protein cannot regulate the activity of other genes. Other mutations change one protein building block (amino acid) in the area of the FOXC2 protein that binds to DNA, preventing the protein from regulating gene activity. It is not clear why mutations in the FOXC2 gene affect the development of the eye area and lymphatic vessels, the primary regions of the body affected by lymphedema-distichiasis syndrome.

Cytogenetic Location: 16q24.1, which is the long (q) arm of chromosome 16 at position 24.1

Molecular Location: base pairs 86,567,251 to 86,568,933 on chromosome 16 (Homo sapiens Annotation Release 108, GRCh38.p7) (NCBI)

Cytogenetic Location: 16q24.1, which is the long (q) arm of chromosome 16 at position 24.1
  • FKHL14
  • forkhead (Drosophila)-like 14
  • forkhead, Drosophila, homolog-like 14
  • FOXC2_HUMAN
  • LD
  • MFH-1
  • MFH-1,mesenchyme forkhead 1
  • MFH1