coagulation factor X
The F10 gene provides instructions for making a protein called coagulation factor X. Coagulation factors are a group of related proteins that are involved in the coagulation system, which is a series of chemical reactions that form blood clots. After an injury, clots seal off blood vessels to stop bleeding and trigger blood vessel repair.
Coagulation factor X is made primarily by cells in the liver. The protein circulates in the bloodstream in an inactive form until the coagulation system is turned on (activated) by an injury that damages blood vessels. When coagulation factor X is activated, it interacts with other coagulation factors to convert an important coagulation protein called prothrombin to its active form, thrombin. Thrombin then converts a protein called fibrinogen into fibrin, which is the material that forms blood clots.
At least 130 mutations in the F10 gene have been found to cause a rare bleeding disorder called factor X deficiency. This disorder commonly causes nosebleeds, easy bruising, bleeding under the skin, bleeding of the gums, blood in the urine (hematuria), and prolonged or excessive bleeding following surgery or trauma. Some F10 gene mutations that cause factor X deficiency reduce the amount of coagulation factor X in the bloodstream, resulting in a form of the disorder called type I. Other F10 gene mutations result in the production of a coagulation factor X protein with impaired function, leading to type II factor X deficiency. Reduced quantity or function of coagulation factor X prevents blood from clotting normally, causing episodes of abnormal bleeding that can be severe.
- autoprothrombin III
- Prower factor
- Stuart factor
- Stuart-Prower factor