eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 subunit gamma
The information on this page was automatically extracted from online scientific databases.
From NCBI Gene:
The protein encoded by this gene is the largest subunit of a heterotrimeric GTP-binding protein involved in the recruitment of methionyl-tRNA(i) to the 40 S ribosomal subunit. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2010]
As a subunit of eukaryotic initiation factor 2 (eIF-2), involved in the early steps of protein synthesis. In the presence of GTP, eIF-2 forms a ternary complex with initiator tRNA Met-tRNAi and then recruits the 40S ribosomal complex and initiation factors eIF-1, eIF-1A and eIF-3 to form the 43S pre-initiation complex (43S PIC), a step that determines the rate of protein translation. The 43S PIC binds to mRNA and scans downstream to the initiation codon, where it forms a 48S initiation complex by codon-anticodon base pairing. This leads to the displacement of eIF-1 to allow GTPase-activating protein (GAP) eIF-5-mediated hydrolysis of eIF2-bound GTP. Hydrolysis of GTP and release of Pi, which makes GTP hydrolysis irreversible, causes the release of the eIF-2-GDP binary complex from the 40S subunit, an event that is essential for the subsequent joining of the 60S ribosomal subunit to form an elongation-competent 80S ribosome. In order for eIF-2 to recycle and catalyze another round of initiation, the GDP bound to eIF-2 must be exchanged with GTP by way of a reaction catalyzed by GDP-GTP exchange factor (GEF) eIF-2B (By similarity). Along with its paralog on chromosome Y, may contribute to spermatogenesis up to the round spermatid stage (By similarity).