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From NCBI Gene:
This gene encodes an immune inhibitory receptor ligand that is expressed by hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells, such as T cells and B cells and various types of tumor cells. The encoded protein is a type I transmembrane protein that has immunoglobulin V-like and C-like domains. Interaction of this ligand with its receptor inhibits T-cell activation and cytokine production. During infection or inflammation of normal tissue, this interaction is important for preventing autoimmunity by maintaining homeostasis of the immune response. In tumor microenvironments, this interaction provides an immune escape for tumor cells through cytotoxic T-cell inactivation. Expression of this gene in tumor cells is considered to be prognostic in many types of human malignancies, including colon cancer and renal cell carcinoma. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2015]
The PDCD1-mediated inhibitory pathway is exploited by tumors to attenuate anti-tumor immunity and escape destruction by the immune system, thereby facilitating tumor survival (PubMed:28813417, PubMed:28813410). The interaction with PDCD1/PD-1 inhibits cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) effector function (By similarity). The blockage of the PDCD1-mediated pathway results in the reversal of the exhausted T-cell phenotype and the normalization of the anti-tumor response, providing a rationale for cancer immunotherapy.
Plays a critical role in induction and maintenance of immune tolerance to self (PubMed:11015443, PubMed:28813417, PubMed:28813410). As a ligand for the inhibitory receptor PDCD1/PD-1, modulates the activation threshold of T-cells and limits T-cell effector response (PubMed:11015443, PubMed:28813417, PubMed:28813410). Through a yet unknown activating receptor, may costimulate T-cell subsets that predominantly produce interleukin-10 (IL10) (PubMed:10581077).
Truncation of the 3'-untranslated (3'-UTR) region of CD274 transcripts leads to elevated expression of CD274 in multiple cancers including T-cell leukemia, diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and stomach adenocarcinoma (PubMed:27281199). Disruption of 3'-UTR region is caused by structural variants that stabilize CD274 transcripts, leading to overexpression (PubMed:27281199). Increased expression in tumors promotes immune evasion and tumor cell growth by allowing malignant cells to escape destruction by the immune system (PubMed:27281199).