The information on this page was automatically extracted from online scientific databases.
From NCBI Gene:
This gene encodes a transmembrane receptor and is often referred to as DC-SIGN because of its expression on the surface of dendritic cells and macrophages. The encoded protein is involved in the innate immune system and recognizes numerous evolutionarily divergent pathogens ranging from parasites to viruses with a large impact on public health. The protein is organized into three distinct domains: an N-terminal transmembrane domain, a tandem-repeat neck domain and C-type lectin carbohydrate recognition domain. The extracellular region consisting of the C-type lectin and neck domains has a dual function as a pathogen recognition receptor and a cell adhesion receptor by binding carbohydrate ligands on the surface of microbes and endogenous cells. The neck region is important for homo-oligomerization which allows the receptor to bind multivalent ligands with high avidity. Variations in the number of 23 amino acid repeats in the neck domain of this protein are rare but have a significant impact on ligand binding ability. This gene is closely related in terms of both sequence and function to a neighboring gene (GeneID 10332; often referred to as L-SIGN). DC-SIGN and L-SIGN differ in their ligand-binding properties and distribution. Alternative splicing results in multiple variants.[provided by RefSeq, Feb 2009]
On DCs it is a high affinity receptor for ICAM2 and ICAM3 by binding to mannose-like carbohydrates. May act as a DC rolling receptor that mediates transendothelial migration of DC presursors from blood to tissues by binding endothelial ICAM2. Seems to regulate DC-induced T-cell proliferation by binding to ICAM3 on T-cells in the immunological synapse formed between DC and T-cells.
Pathogen-recognition receptor expressed on the surface of immature dendritic cells (DCs) and involved in initiation of primary immune response. Thought to mediate the endocytosis of pathogens which are subsequently degraded in lysosomal compartments. The receptor returns to the cell membrane surface and the pathogen-derived antigens are presented to resting T-cells via MHC class II proteins to initiate the adaptive immune response.
(Microbial infection) Acts as an attachment receptor for HIV-1 and HIV-2 (PubMed:11799126, PubMed:12502850, PubMed:1518869). Acts as an attachment receptor for ebolavirus (PubMed:12502850, PubMed:12504546). Acts as an attachment receptor for cytomegalovirus (PubMed:12433371, PubMed:22496863). Acts as an attachment receptor for HCV (PubMed:15371595, PubMed:16816373). Acts as an attachment receptor for dengue virus (PubMed:12682107). Acts as an attachment receptor for measles virus (PubMed:16537615). Acts as an attachment receptor for herpes simplex virus 1 (PubMed:18796707). Acts as an attachment receptor for Influenzavirus A (PubMed:21191006). Acts as an attachment receptor for SARS coronavirus (PubMed:15140961). Acts as an attachment receptor for Japanese encephalitis virus (PubMed:24623090). Acts as an attachment receptor for Lassa virus (PubMed:23966408). Acts as an attachment receptor for marburg virusn (PubMed:15479853). Acts as an attachment receptor for Respiratory syncytial virus (PubMed:22090124). Acts as an attachment receptor for Rift valley fever virus and uukuniemi virus (PubMed:21767814). Acts as an attachment receptor for west-nile virus (PubMed:16415006). Probably recognizes in a calcium-dependent manner high mannose N-linked oligosaccharides in a variety of bacterial pathogen antigens, including Leishmania pifanoi LPG, Lewis-x antigen in Helicobacter pylori LPS, mannose in Klebsiella pneumonae LPS, di-mannose and tri-mannose in Mycobacterium tuberculosis ManLAM and Lewis-x antigen in Schistosoma mansoni SEA (PubMed:16379498). Recognition of M.tuberculosis by dendritic cells occurs partially via this molecule (PubMed:16092920, PubMed:21203928).