CD19 gene

CD19 molecule

The information on this page was automatically extracted from online scientific databases.

From NCBI Gene:

This gene encodes a member of the immunoglobulin gene superfamily. Expression of this cell surface protein is restricted to B cell lymphocytes. This protein is a reliable marker for pre-B cells but its expression diminishes during terminal B cell differentiation in antibody secreting plasma cells. The protein has two N-terminal extracellular Ig-like domains separated by a non-Ig-like domain, a hydrophobic transmembrane domain, and a large C-terminal cytoplasmic domain. This protein forms a complex with several membrane proteins including complement receptor type 2 (CD21) and tetraspanin (CD81) and this complex reduces the threshold for antigen-initiated B cell activation. Activation of this B-cell antigen receptor complex activates the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signalling pathway and the subsequent release of intracellular stores of calcium ions. This protein is a target of chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cells used in the treatment of lymphoblastic leukemia. Mutations in this gene are associated with the disease common variable immunodeficiency 3 (CVID3) which results in a failure of B-cell differentiation and impaired secretion of immunoglobulins. CVID3 is characterized by hypogammaglobulinemia, an inability to mount an antibody response to antigen, and recurrent bacterial infections. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2020]

From UniProt:

Functions as coreceptor for the B-cell antigen receptor complex (BCR) on B-lymphocytes. Decreases the threshold for activation of downstream signaling pathways and for triggering B-cell responses to antigens (PubMed:2463100, PubMed:1373518, PubMed:16672701). Activates signaling pathways that lead to the activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and the mobilization of intracellular Ca(2+) stores (PubMed:9382888, PubMed:9317126, PubMed:12387743, PubMed:16672701). Is not required for early steps during B cell differentiation in the blood marrow (PubMed:9317126). Required for normal differentiation of B-1 cells (By similarity). Required for normal B cell differentiation and proliferation in response to antigen challenges (PubMed:2463100, PubMed:1373518). Required for normal levels of serum immunoglobulins, and for production of high-affinity antibodies in response to antigen challenge (PubMed:9317126, PubMed:12387743, PubMed:16672701).

Covered on Genetics Home Reference:

From NCBI Gene:

  • Common variable immunodeficiency 2
  • Common variable immunodeficiency 3

From UniProt:

Immunodeficiency, common variable, 3 (CVID3): A primary immunodeficiency characterized by antibody deficiency, hypogammaglobulinemia, recurrent bacterial infections and an inability to mount an antibody response to antigen. The defect results from a failure of B-cell differentiation and impaired secretion of immunoglobulins; the numbers of circulating B-cells is usually in the normal range, but can be low. [MIM:613493]

Cytogenetic Location: 16p11.2, which is the short (p) arm of chromosome 16 at position 11.2

Molecular Location: base pairs 28,931,735 to 28,939,347 on chromosome 16 (Homo sapiens Updated Annotation Release 109.20200522, GRCh38.p13) (NCBI)

Cytogenetic Location: 16p11.2, which is the short (p) arm of chromosome 16 at position 11.2
  • B4
  • CVID3