AXL receptor tyrosine kinase
The information on this page was automatically extracted from online scientific databases.
From NCBI Gene:
The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the Tyro3-Axl-Mer (TAM) receptor tyrosine kinase subfamily. The encoded protein possesses an extracellular domain which is composed of two immunoglobulin-like motifs at the N-terminal, followed by two fibronectin type-III motifs. It transduces signals from the extracellular matrix into the cytoplasm by binding to the vitamin K-dependent protein growth arrest-specific 6 (Gas6). This gene may be involved in several cellular functions including growth, migration, aggregation and anti-inflammation in multiple cell types. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants of this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2013]
(Microbial infection) Acts as a receptor for lassa virus and lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus, possibly through GAS6 binding to phosphatidyl-serine at the surface of virion envelope (PubMed:22156524, PubMed:22673088, PubMed:25277499, PubMed:21501828). Acts as a receptor for ebolavirus, possibly through GAS6 binding to phosphatidyl-serine at the surface of virion envelope (PubMed:17005688).
Receptor tyrosine kinase that transduces signals from the extracellular matrix into the cytoplasm by binding growth factor GAS6 and which is thus regulating many physiological processes including cell survival, cell proliferation, migration and differentiation. Ligand binding at the cell surface induces dimerization and autophosphorylation of AXL. Following activation by ligand, ALX binds and induces tyrosine phosphorylation of PI3-kinase subunits PIK3R1, PIK3R2 and PIK3R3; but also GRB2, PLCG1, LCK and PTPN11. Other downstream substrate candidates for AXL are CBL, NCK2, SOCS1 and TNS2. Recruitment of GRB2 and phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase regulatory subunits by AXL leads to the downstream activation of the AKT kinase. GAS6/AXL signaling plays a role in various processes such as endothelial cell survival during acidification by preventing apoptosis, optimal cytokine signaling during human natural killer cell development, hepatic regeneration, gonadotropin-releasing hormone neuron survival and migration, platelet activation, or regulation of thrombotic responses. Plays also an important role in inhibition of Toll-like receptors (TLRs)-mediated innate immune response.
AXL and its ligand GAS6 are highly expressed in thyroid carcinoma tissues, and might thus be involved in thyroid tumorigenesis. Overexpression of AXL and its ligand was also detected in many other cancers such as myeloproliferative disorders, prostatic carcinoma cells, or breast cancer.