Neutral lipid storage disease with myopathy is a condition in which fats (lipids) are stored abnormally in organs and tissues throughout the body. People with this condition have muscle weakness (myopathy) due to the accumulation of fats in muscle tissue. Other features of this condition may include a fatty liver, a weakened and enlarged heart (cardiomyopathy), inflammation of the pancreas (pancreatitis), reduced thyroid activity (hypothyroidism), and type 2 diabetes mellitus (the most common form of diabetes). Signs and symptoms of neutral lipid storage disease with myopathy vary greatly among affected individuals.
Neutral lipid storage disease with myopathy is a rare condition; its incidence is unknown.
Mutations in the PNPLA2 gene cause neutral lipid storage disease with myopathy. The PNPLA2 gene provides instructions for making an enzyme called adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL). The ATGL enzyme plays a role in breaking down fats called triglycerides. Triglycerides are an important source of stored energy in cells. These fats must be broken down into simpler molecules called fatty acids before they can be used for energy.
PNPLA2 gene mutations impair the ATGL enzyme's ability to break down triglycerides. These triglycerides then accumulate in muscle and tissues throughout the body, resulting in the signs and symptoms of neutral lipid storage disease with myopathy.
This condition is inherited in an autosomal recessive pattern, which means both copies of the gene in each cell have mutations. The parents of an individual with an autosomal recessive condition each carry one copy of the mutated gene, but they typically do not show signs and symptoms of the condition.
- neutral lipid storage disease without ichthyosis