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What is informed consent?

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Before a person has a genetic test, it is important that he or she fully understands the testing procedure, the benefits and limitations of the test, and the possible consequences of the test results. The process of educating a person about the test and obtaining permission to carry out testing is called informed consent. “Informed” means that the person has enough information to make an educated decision about testing; “consent” refers to a person’s voluntary agreement to have the test done.

In general, informed consent can only be given by adults who are competent to make medical decisions for themselves. For children and others who are unable to make their own medical decisions (such as people with impaired mental status), informed consent can be given by a parent, guardian, or other person legally responsible for making decisions on that person’s behalf.

Informed consent for genetic testing is generally obtained by a doctor or genetic counselor during an office visit. The healthcare provider will discuss the test and answer any questions. If the person wishes to have the test, he or she will then usually read and sign a consent form.

Several factors are commonly included on an informed consent form:

  • A general description of the test, including the purpose of the test and the condition for which the testing is being performed.

  • How the test will be carried out (for example, a blood sample).

  • What the test results mean, including positive and negative results, and the potential for uninformative results or incorrect results such as false positives or false negatives.

  • Any physical or emotional risks associated with the test.

  • Whether the results can be used for research purposes.

  • Whether the results might provide information about other family members’ health, including the risk of developing a particular condition or the possibility of having affected children.

  • How and to whom test results will be reported and under what circumstances results can be disclosed (for example, to health insurance providers).

  • What will happen to the test specimen after the test is complete.

  • Acknowledgement that the person requesting testing has had the opportunity to discuss the test with a healthcare professional.

  • The individual’s signature, and possibly that of a witness.

The elements of informed consent may vary, because some states have laws that specify factors that must be included. (For example, some states require disclosure that the test specimen will be destroyed within a certain period of time after the test is complete.)

Informed consent is not a contract, so a person can change his or her mind at any time after giving initial consent. A person may choose not to go through with genetic testing even after the test sample has been collected. A person simply needs to notify the healthcare provider if he or she decides not to continue with the testing process.

For more information about informed consent:

MedlinePlus offers general information about informed consent by adultsThis link leads to a site outside Genetics Home Reference..

The National Cancer Institute discusses informed consent for genetic testing in the context of inherited cancer syndromesThis link leads to a site outside Genetics Home Reference..

The National Human Genome Research Institute provides information about informed consent in genomics researchThis link leads to a site outside Genetics Home Reference. and policies and legislation related to informed consent for genetic research studies and testingThis link leads to a site outside Genetics Home Reference..

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention offers several examples of state-required components of informed consent for genetic testingThis link leads to a site outside Genetics Home Reference..

Additional information about informed consentThis link leads to a site outside Genetics Home Reference. is available in a tutorial from the PHG Foundation (UK).

Next: What is direct-to-consumer genetic testing?

Published: February 8, 2016