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Gene amplification

Definition(s)

A selective increase in the number of copies of a gene coding for a specific protein without a proportional increase in other genes. It occurs naturally via the excision of a copy of the repeating sequence from the chromosome and its extrachromosomal replication in a plasmid, or via the production of an RNA transcript of the entire repeating sequence of ribosomal RNA followed by the reverse transcription of the molecule to produce an additional copy of the original DNA sequence. Laboratory techniques have been introduced for inducing disproportional replication by unequal crossing over, uptake of DNA from lysed cells, or generation of extrachromosomal sequences from rolling circle replication.

Definition from: MeSH via Unified Medical Language SystemThis link leads to a site outside Genetics Home Reference. at the National Library of Medicine

Repeated copying of a piece of DNA; a characteristic of tumor cells.

Definition from: Human Genome Project InformationThis link leads to a site outside Genetics Home Reference. at the U.S. Department of Energy

Gene amplification is an increase in the number of copies of a gene sequence. Cancer cells sometimes produce multiple copies of genes in response to signals from other cells or their environment. The term also can refer to polymerase chain reaction (PCR), a laboratory technique that is used by scientists to amplify gene sequences in a test tube.

Definition from: Talking Glossary of Genetic TermsThis link leads to a site outside Genetics Home Reference. from the National Human Genome Research Institute

See also Understanding Medical Terminology.

 
Published: April 20, 2015