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The LAM gene family comprises genes that provide instructions for making proteins called laminins. These proteins are heterotrimers, which means they are made of three different parts (subunits). Every laminin protein is composed of a heavy alpha subunit and two lighter subunits designated beta and gamma. There are several forms of each subunit, and each form is produced from instructions carried by a different gene. At least five alpha subunits, four beta subunits, and three gamma subunits have been identified.
Laminins are found in an intricate lattice of proteins and other molecules that forms in the spaces between cells (the extracellular matrix). There, they help regulate cell growth, cell movement (motility), and the attachment of cells to one another (adhesion). They are also involved in the formation and organization of basement membranes, which are thin, sheet-like structures within the extracellular matrix that separate and support cells in many tissues.
Individual laminin proteins are often located in particular tissues. For example, laminin 2 and laminin 4 are found primarily in muscles used for movement (skeletal muscles). Gene mutations that affect the structure or availability of these laminins can result in muscular dystrophy, a group of disorders characterized by muscle weakness and wasting. Laminin 5 plays an important role in the basement membrane beneath the top layer of skin (the epidermis); this membrane gives the skin strength and resiliency and creates an additional barrier between the body and its surrounding environment. Mutations in genes that provide instructions for making laminin 5 subunits can lead to fragile skin that easily breaks down.
The HUGO Gene Nomenclature Committee (HGNC) provides a list of genes in the LAM family (http://www.genenames.org/genefamilies/LAM).
Genetics Home Reference summarizes the normal function and health implications of these members of the LAM gene family: LAMA2, LAMA3, LAMB3, and LAMC2.
Genetics Home Reference includes these conditions related to genes in the LAM gene family:
You may find the following resources about the LAM gene family helpful.
basement membrane ; basement membranes ; cell ; epidermis ; extracellular ; extracellular matrix ; gene ; muscular dystrophy ; protein ; subunit ; wasting
You may find definitions for these and many other terms in the Genetics Home Reference Glossary (http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/glossary).
These sources were used to develop the Genetics Home Reference summary for the LAM gene family.
The resources on this site should not be used as a substitute for professional medical care or advice. Users seeking information about a personal genetic disease, syndrome, or condition should consult with a qualified healthcare professional. See How can I find a genetics professional in my area? (http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/handbook/consult/findingprofessional) in the Handbook.