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The GR gene family provides instructions for making proteins called glutamate receptors. These proteins are found on the surface of cells, most frequently nerve cells (neurons), where they attach (bind) to a molecule called glutamate and control its activity. Glutamate is one of several chemicals called neurotransmitters, which allow neurons to communicate with one another.
Cells use glutamate to communicate by transferring this molecule from one cell to another with the help of glutamate receptors. During cell signaling, one cell releases glutamate, which is taken up by a neighboring cell by binding to its glutamate receptor. This binding triggers signaling within the receiving cell. After glutamate has had the intended signaling effect, the glutamate receptor releases it to be reused.
There are two forms of glutamate receptors: metabotropic and ionotropic. These forms are distinguished by their structure and how they relay signals to the cell. When a metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGlu) binds to glutamate, the receptor is turned on (activated) and sends a signal to the cell. When an ionotropic glutamate receptor (iGlu) binds to glutamate, the receptor opens up, allowing charged atoms (ions) to flow into the cell, which causes signaling within the cell.
Mutations in GR genes can alter the way signals are sent between cells and often play a role in the development of neurological conditions such as recurrent seizures (epilepsy), mood disorders, and schizophrenia. Some GR gene mutations impair other body systems; for example, mutations in the GRM6 gene causes a condition called autosomal recessive congenital stationary night blindness, which is characterized by an inability to see in low-light.
The HUGO Gene Nomenclature Committee (HGNC) provides a list of genes in the GR family (http://www.genenames.org/genefamilies/GR).
Genetics Home Reference summarizes the normal function and health implications of this member of the GR gene family: GRM6.
Genetics Home Reference includes these conditions related to genes in the GR gene family:
You may find the following resources about the GR gene family helpful.
autosomal ; autosomal recessive ; cell ; congenital ; epilepsy ; gene ; ions ; molecule ; neurological ; neurotransmitters ; receptor ; recessive ; schizophrenia
You may find definitions for these and many other terms in the Genetics Home Reference Glossary (http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/glossary).
These sources were used to develop the Genetics Home Reference summary for the GR gene family.
The resources on this site should not be used as a substitute for professional medical care or advice. Users seeking information about a personal genetic disease, syndrome, or condition should consult with a qualified healthcare professional. See How can I find a genetics professional in my area? (http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/handbook/consult/findingprofessional) in the Handbook.