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Genes in the DYN family provide instructions for making proteins that form a group (complex) called a cytoplasmic dynein. This complex is found in the fluid inside cells (cytoplasm) and is known as a cytoplasmic dynein complex. This complex is turned on (activated) by attaching (binding) to another complex called dynactin. This dynein-dynactin complex binds to various materials within cells. Using energy provided from molecules called ATP, the dynein-dynactin complex moves its bound material along a track-like system of small tubes called microtubules, similar to a conveyer belt. The dynein-dynactin complex is necessary for protein transport, positioning of cell compartments, mobility of structures within the cell, and many other cell processes. In nerve cells (neurons), the dynein-dynactin complex helps neighboring cells communicate by transporting sac-like structures called synaptic vesicles that contain chemical messengers. When synaptic vesicles are passed from one neuron to another, dynein transports the vesicle from the edge of the cell to the center where the chemical message is received.
The parts (subunits) of a cytoplasmic dynein complex are produced from 15 known genes. These subunits are classified by weight as heavy, intermediate, light intermediate, or light chains. Two heavy chain proteins bind together to form the core of the dynein complex. Combinations of intermediate, light intermediate, and light chains make up the rest of the complex.
The HUGO Gene Nomenclature Committee (HGNC) provides an index of gene families (http://www.genenames.org/cgi-bin/genefamilies/) and their member genes.
Genetics Home Reference summarizes the normal function and health implications of these members of the DYN gene family: DYNC1H1 and DYNC2H1.
Genetics Home Reference includes these conditions related to genes in the DYN gene family:
You may find the following resources about the DYN gene family helpful.
ATP ; cell ; cytoplasm ; neuron ; protein ; synaptic vesicles ; vesicle
You may find definitions for these and many other terms in the Genetics Home Reference Glossary.
These sources were used to develop the Genetics Home Reference summary for the DYN gene family.
The resources on this site should not be used as a substitute for professional medical care or advice. Users seeking information about a personal genetic disease, syndrome, or condition should consult with a qualified healthcare professional. See How can I find a genetics professional in my area? (http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/handbook/consult/findingprofessional) in the Handbook.