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Genetics Home Reference: your guide to understanding genetic conditions     A service of the U.S. National Library of Medicine®


Reviewed August 2013

What is the official name of the SLC25A1 gene?

The official name of this gene is “solute carrier family 25 (mitochondrial carrier; citrate transporter), member 1.”

SLC25A1 is the gene's official symbol. The SLC25A1 gene is also known by other names, listed below.

What is the normal function of the SLC25A1 gene?

The SLC25A1 gene provides instructions for making a protein that is found in mitochondria, which are the energy-producing centers in cells. The SLC25A1 protein transports a molecule called citrate out of mitochondria in exchange for another molecule called malate, which is transported in. Within mitochondria, both citrate and malate participate in reactions that produce energy for cell activities. Citrate is transported out of mitochondria because it also has important functions in other parts of the cell. In particular, citrate is involved in the production of fats (lipids) and the regulation of glycolysis, which is another critical energy-producing process within cells.

Does the SLC25A1 gene share characteristics with other genes?

The SLC25A1 gene belongs to a family of genes called SLC (solute carriers).

A gene family is a group of genes that share important characteristics. Classifying individual genes into families helps researchers describe how genes are related to each other. For more information, see What are gene families? ( in the Handbook.

How are changes in the SLC25A1 gene related to health conditions?

2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria - caused by mutations in the SLC25A1 gene

At least 12 mutations in the SLC25A1 gene have been found to cause a form of 2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria called combined D,L-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria (D,L-2-HGA). This condition causes severe brain abnormalities that become apparent in early infancy.

Each of the known SLC25A1 gene mutations greatly reduces the function of the SLC25A1 protein. As a result, citrate and malate cannot be transported into and out of mitochondria, which disrupts energy production within cells. Through processes that are not fully understood, the lack of citrate and malate transport allows other compounds to build up abnormally within cells. These compounds include D-2-hydroxyglutarate and L-2-hydroxyglutarate, which at high levels can damage cells and lead to cell death. Brain cells appear to be the most vulnerable to the toxic effects of these compounds, which may explain why the signs and symptoms of D,L-2-HGA primarily involve the brain. Researchers suspect that an imbalance of other molecules, particularly citrate, also contributes to the severe signs and symptoms of combined D,L-2-HGA

Where is the SLC25A1 gene located?

Cytogenetic Location: 22q11.21

Molecular Location on chromosome 22: base pairs 19,175,575 to 19,178,863

(Homo sapiens Annotation Release 107, GRCh38.p2) (NCBI (

The SLC25A1 gene is located on the long (q) arm of chromosome 22 at position 11.21.

The SLC25A1 gene is located on the long (q) arm of chromosome 22 at position 11.21.

More precisely, the SLC25A1 gene is located from base pair 19,175,575 to base pair 19,178,863 on chromosome 22.

See How do geneticists indicate the location of a gene? ( in the Handbook.

Where can I find additional information about SLC25A1?

You and your healthcare professional may find the following resources about SLC25A1 helpful.

You may also be interested in these resources, which are designed for genetics professionals and researchers.

What other names do people use for the SLC25A1 gene or gene products?

  • citrate transport protein
  • CTP
  • D2L2AD
  • SEA
  • SLC20A3
  • solute carrier family 20 (mitochondrial citrate transporter), member 3
  • tricarboxylate carrier protein
  • tricarboxylate transport protein, mitochondrial

See How are genetic conditions and genes named? ( in the Handbook.

What glossary definitions help with understanding SLC25A1?

aciduria ; carrier ; cell ; gene ; mitochondria ; molecule ; oxidative phosphorylation ; phosphorylation ; protein ; solute ; toxic

You may find definitions for these and many other terms in the Genetics Home Reference Glossary.


  • Catalina-Rodriguez O, Kolukula VK, Tomita Y, Preet A, Palmieri F, Wellstein A, Byers S, Giaccia AJ, Glasgow E, Albanese C, Avantaggiati ML. The mitochondrial citrate transporter, CIC, is essential for mitochondrial homeostasis. Oncotarget. 2012 Oct;3(10):1220-35. (
  • Iacobazzi V, Lauria G, Palmieri F. Organization and sequence of the human gene for the mitochondrial citrate transport protein. DNA Seq. 1997;7(3-4):127-39. (
  • NCBI Gene (
  • Nota B, Struys EA, Pop A, Jansen EE, Fernandez Ojeda MR, Kanhai WA, Kranendijk M, van Dooren SJ, Bevova MR, Sistermans EA, Nieuwint AW, Barth M, Ben-Omran T, Hoffmann GF, de Lonlay P, McDonald MT, Meberg A, Muntau AC, Nuoffer JM, Parini R, Read MH, Renneberg A, Santer R, Strahleck T, van Schaftingen E, van der Knaap MS, Jakobs C, Salomons GS. Deficiency in SLC25A1, encoding the mitochondrial citrate carrier, causes combined D-2- and L-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria. Am J Hum Genet. 2013 Apr 4;92(4):627-31. doi: 10.1016/j.ajhg.2013.03.009. (
  • Palmieri F. The mitochondrial transporter family SLC25: identification, properties and physiopathology. Mol Aspects Med. 2013 Apr-Jun;34(2-3):465-84. doi: 10.1016/j.mam.2012.05.005. Epub 2012 Dec 23. Review. (


The resources on this site should not be used as a substitute for professional medical care or advice. Users seeking information about a personal genetic disease, syndrome, or condition should consult with a qualified healthcare professional. See How can I find a genetics professional in my area? ( in the Handbook.

Reviewed: August 2013
Published: February 8, 2016