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Genetics Home Reference: your guide to understanding genetic conditions
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NGF

Reviewed July 2011

What is the official name of the NGF gene?

The official name of this gene is “nerve growth factor (beta polypeptide).”

NGF is the gene's official symbol. The NGF gene is also known by other names, listed below.

What is the normal function of the NGF gene?

The NGF gene provides instructions for making a protein called nerve growth factor beta (NGFβ). This protein is important in the development and survival of nerve cells (neurons), especially those that transmit pain, temperature, and touch sensations (sensory neurons). The NGFβ protein functions by attaching (binding) to its receptors, which initiates signaling pathways inside the cell. The NGFβ protein can bind to two different receptors, the NTRK1 receptor or the p75NTR receptor. Both receptors are found on the surface of sensory neurons and other types of neurons. The binding of the NGFβ protein to the NTRK1 receptor signals these neurons to grow and to mature and take on specialized functions (differentiate). This binding also blocks signals that initiate the process of self-destruction (apoptosis). Additionally, NGFβ signaling through NTRK1 plays a role in pain sensation. It is less clear what binding with the p75NTR receptor signals. Studies suggest that p75NTR signaling can help sensory neurons grow and differentiate but can also trigger apoptosis.

Does the NGF gene share characteristics with other genes?

The NGF gene belongs to a family of genes called endogenous ligands (endogenous ligands).

A gene family is a group of genes that share important characteristics. Classifying individual genes into families helps researchers describe how genes are related to each other. For more information, see What are gene families? (http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/handbook/howgeneswork/genefamilies) in the Handbook.

How are changes in the NGF gene related to health conditions?

hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type V - caused by mutations in the NGF gene

At least one mutation in the NGF gene has been reported to cause hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type V (HSAN5), a condition characterized by the inability to feel pain and sense hot and cold. This mutation changes a single protein building block (amino acid) in the NGFβ protein. The amino acid arginine is replaced with the amino acid tryptophan at position 100 (written as Arg100Trp or R100W). Studies show that the mutated NGFβ protein cannot bind to the p75NTR receptor and that it alters the signaling through the NTRK1 receptor. In addition, people with HSAN5 have a reduced number of sensory neurons. However, the mechanism by which mutation of the NGF gene leads to the inability to feel pain and temperature sensations is unclear. Although the NGFβ protein is important in many types of neurons, only sensory neurons appear to be affected in people with HSAN5.

Where is the NGF gene located?

Cytogenetic Location: 1p13.1

Molecular Location on chromosome 1: base pairs 115,285,915 to 115,338,383

The NGF gene is located on the short (p) arm of chromosome 1 at position 13.1.

The NGF gene is located on the short (p) arm of chromosome 1 at position 13.1.

More precisely, the NGF gene is located from base pair 115,285,915 to base pair 115,338,383 on chromosome 1.

See How do geneticists indicate the location of a gene? (http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/handbook/howgeneswork/genelocation) in the Handbook.

Where can I find additional information about NGF?

You and your healthcare professional may find the following resources about NGF helpful.

You may also be interested in these resources, which are designed for genetics professionals and researchers.

What other names do people use for the NGF gene or gene products?

  • beta-nerve growth factor
  • beta-nerve growth factor precursor
  • Beta-NGF
  • HSAN5
  • nerve growth factor, beta subunit
  • NGFB
  • NGF_HUMAN

See How are genetic conditions and genes named? (http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/handbook/mutationsanddisorders/naming) in the Handbook.

What glossary definitions help with understanding NGF?

amino acid ; apoptosis ; arginine ; cell ; gene ; growth factor ; hereditary ; mutation ; neuropathy ; precursor ; protein ; receptor ; subunit ; tryptophan

You may find definitions for these and many other terms in the Genetics Home Reference Glossary (http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/glossary).

References

  • Capsoni S, Covaceuszach S, Marinelli S, Ceci M, Bernardo A, Minghetti L, Ugolini G, Pavone F, Cattaneo A. Taking pain out of NGF: a "painless" NGF mutant, linked to hereditary sensory autonomic neuropathy type V, with full neurotrophic activity. PLoS One. 2011 Feb 28;6(2):e17321. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0017321. (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21387003?dopt=Abstract)
  • Einarsdottir E, Carlsson A, Minde J, Toolanen G, Svensson O, Solders G, Holmgren G, Holmberg D, Holmberg M. A mutation in the nerve growth factor beta gene (NGFB) causes loss of pain perception. Hum Mol Genet. 2004 Apr 15;13(8):799-805. Epub 2004 Feb 19. (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14976160?dopt=Abstract)
  • Kaplan DR, Miller FD. Neurotrophin signal transduction in the nervous system. Curr Opin Neurobiol. 2000 Jun;10(3):381-91. Review. (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10851172?dopt=Abstract)
  • Larsson E, Kuma R, Norberg A, Minde J, Holmberg M. Nerve growth factor R221W responsible for insensitivity to pain is defectively processed and accumulates as proNGF. Neurobiol Dis. 2009 Feb;33(2):221-8. doi: 10.1016/j.nbd.2008.10.012. Epub 2008 Nov 8. (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19038341?dopt=Abstract)
  • Lewin GR, Mendell LM. Nerve growth factor and nociception. Trends Neurosci. 1993 Sep;16(9):353-9. Review. (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7694405?dopt=Abstract)
  • NCBI Gene (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/gene/4803)
  • OMIM: NERVE GROWTH FACTOR, BETA SUBUNIT (http://omim.org/entry/162030)
  • Ritter AM, Lewin GR, Kremer NE, Mendell LM. Requirement for nerve growth factor in the development of myelinated nociceptors in vivo. Nature. 1991 Apr 11;350(6318):500-2. (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2014050?dopt=Abstract)
  • Verpoorten N, De Jonghe P, Timmerman V. Disease mechanisms in hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathies. Neurobiol Dis. 2006 Feb;21(2):247-55. Epub 2005 Sep 23. Review. (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16183296?dopt=Abstract)

 

The resources on this site should not be used as a substitute for professional medical care or advice. Users seeking information about a personal genetic disease, syndrome, or condition should consult with a qualified healthcare professional. See How can I find a genetics professional in my area? (http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/handbook/consult/findingprofessional) in the Handbook.

 
Reviewed: July 2011
Published: October 20, 2014