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Genetics Home Reference: your guide to understanding genetic conditions     A service of the U.S. National Library of Medicine®


Reviewed February 2009

What is the official name of the NDP gene?

The official name of this gene is “Norrie disease (pseudoglioma).”

NDP is the gene's official symbol. The NDP gene is also known by other names, listed below.

What is the normal function of the NDP gene?

The NDP gene provides instructions for making a protein called norrin. Norrin participates in chemical signaling pathways that affect the way cells and tissues develop. Studies suggest that norrin may play a role in Wnt signaling, which is important for cell division (proliferation), attachment of cells to one another (adhesion), cell movement (migration), and many other cellular activities.

Norrin is one of many proteins, or ligands, that can attach (bind) to other proteins called frizzled receptors. These receptors are embedded in the outer membranes of cells. Norrin binds with the receptor frizzled-4 (produced from the FZD4 gene), fitting together like a key in a lock. When a ligand binds to a frizzled receptor, it initiates a multi-step process that regulates the activity of certain genes.

The norrin protein and its receptor frizzled-4 participate in developmental processes that are believed to be crucial for normal development of the eye and other body systems. In particular, norrin seems to play critical roles in the specialization of cells in the retina (the thin layer at the back of the eye that senses light and color) and the establishment of a blood supply to the retina and the inner ear.

Does the NDP gene share characteristics with other genes?

The NDP gene belongs to a family of genes called endogenous ligands (endogenous ligands).

A gene family is a group of genes that share important characteristics. Classifying individual genes into families helps researchers describe how genes are related to each other. For more information, see What are gene families? ( in the Handbook.

How are changes in the NDP gene related to health conditions?

familial exudative vitreoretinopathy - caused by mutations in the NDP gene

Several NDP gene mutations have been found to cause the eye disorder familial exudative vitreoretinopathy. These mutations change single protein building blocks (amino acids) in the norrin protein, altering the normal folding of norrin or preventing it from binding to frizzled-4. The defective norrin disrupts chemical signaling in the developing eye, which interferes with the formation of blood vessels at the edges of the retina. The resulting abnormal blood supply to this tissue leads to retinal damage and vision loss in some people with familial exudative vitreoretinopathy.

Norrie disease - caused by mutations in the NDP gene

More than 75 mutations in the NDP gene have been identified in people with Norrie disease. These mutations affect the ability of the norrin protein to bind with frizzled-4, interfering with the specialization of retinal cells for their unique sensory function. As a result, masses of immature retinal cells accumulate in the back of the eyes. Disruption of norrin's role in the establishment of blood vessels supplying the eye eventually causes some of the tissues to break down.

Norrin is also expressed in other systems of the body, and the effects of the disorder can be widespread, including intellectual disability, seizures, behavioral problems, and delayed development. Specific abnormalities and their severity depend on the type and location of the NDP gene mutation. Mutations that delete portions of the NDP gene prevent production of norrin and result in severe problems affecting many body systems in addition to the eyes. Mutations that delete or change single amino acids usually result in less widespread effects.

other retinal dystrophies - caused by mutations in the NDP gene

NDP gene mutations may cause other disorders that affect the retina. One mutation is associated with a disorder called Coats disease. This disorder causes leakage of blood vessels in the retina and retinal detachment, a condition in which layers of the retina separate, resulting in vision loss. Persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous (PHPV) is another retinal disorder that may be caused by NDP gene mutations. In persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous, a remnant of a blood vessel found in the eye before birth remains as a fibrous white stalk between the back of the eye and the lens. Persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous can cause vision loss through retinal detachment, cloudiness of the lens (cataract) or increased pressure inside the eye (glaucoma) that can damage the optic nerve.

In addition, NDP gene mutations may influence the course of a retinal disorder that affects some premature infants. Retinopathy of prematurity is a condition in which abnormal blood vessels appear in the retina and can cause retinal detachment. Babies with retinopathy of prematurity may experience improvement of the condition over time, but some NDP gene mutations have been associated with a worsening of the condition.

Where is the NDP gene located?

Cytogenetic Location: Xp11.4

Molecular Location on the X chromosome: base pairs 43,948,776 to 43,973,675

(Homo sapiens Annotation Release 107, GRCh38.p2) (NCBI (

The NDP gene is located on the short (p) arm of the X chromosome at position 11.4.

The NDP gene is located on the short (p) arm of the X chromosome at position 11.4.

More precisely, the NDP gene is located from base pair 43,948,776 to base pair 43,973,675 on the X chromosome.

See How do geneticists indicate the location of a gene? ( in the Handbook.

Where can I find additional information about NDP?

You and your healthcare professional may find the following resources about NDP helpful.

You may also be interested in these resources, which are designed for genetics professionals and researchers.

What other names do people use for the NDP gene or gene products?

  • ND
  • norrin

See How are genetic conditions and genes named? ( in the Handbook.

What glossary definitions help with understanding NDP?

acids ; angiogenesis ; cataract ; cell ; cell division ; cystine ; disability ; expressed ; familial ; gene ; glaucoma ; ligand ; mutation ; optic nerve ; proliferation ; protein ; pseudoglioma ; receptor ; retina ; tissue

You may find definitions for these and many other terms in the Genetics Home Reference Glossary.


  • Clevers H. Wnt signaling: Ig-norrin the dogma. Curr Biol. 2004 Jun 8;14(11):R436-7. Review. (
  • Dickinson JL, Sale MM, Passmore A, FitzGerald LM, Wheatley CM, Burdon KP, Craig JE, Tengtrisorn S, Carden SM, Maclean H, Mackey DA. Mutations in the NDP gene: contribution to Norrie disease, familial exudative vitreoretinopathy and retinopathy of prematurity. Clin Experiment Ophthalmol. 2006 Sep-Oct;34(7):682-8. (
  • Haider MZ, Devarajan LV, Al-Essa M, Kumar H. A C597-->A polymorphism in the Norrie disease gene is associated with advanced retinopathy of prematurity in premature Kuwaiti infants. J Biomed Sci. 2002 Jul-Aug;9(4):365-70. (
  • Hiraoka M, Berinstein DM, Trese MT, Shastry BS. Insertion and deletion mutations in the dinucleotide repeat region of the Norrie disease gene in patients with advanced retinopathy of prematurity. J Hum Genet. 2001;46(4):178-81. (
  • Kondo H, Qin M, Kusaka S, Tahira T, Hasebe H, Hayashi H, Uchio E, Hayashi K. Novel mutations in Norrie disease gene in Japanese patients with Norrie disease and familial exudative vitreoretinopathy. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2007 Mar;48(3):1276-82. (
  • Lenzner S, Prietz S, Feil S, Nuber UA, Ropers HH, Berger W. Global gene expression analysis in a mouse model for Norrie disease: late involvement of photoreceptor cells. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2002 Sep;43(9):2825-33. (
  • NCBI Gene (
  • Rehm HL, Zhang DS, Brown MC, Burgess B, Halpin C, Berger W, Morton CC, Corey DP, Chen ZY. Vascular defects and sensorineural deafness in a mouse model of Norrie disease. J Neurosci. 2002 Jun 1;22(11):4286-92. (
  • Royer G, Hanein S, Raclin V, Gigarel N, Rozet JM, Munnich A, Steffann J, Dufier JL, Kaplan J, Bonnefont JP. NDP gene mutations in 14 French families with Norrie disease. Hum Mutat. 2003 Dec;22(6):499. (
  • Xu Q, Wang Y, Dabdoub A, Smallwood PM, Williams J, Woods C, Kelley MW, Jiang L, Tasman W, Zhang K, Nathans J. Vascular development in the retina and inner ear: control by Norrin and Frizzled-4, a high-affinity ligand-receptor pair. Cell. 2004 Mar 19;116(6):883-95. (


The resources on this site should not be used as a substitute for professional medical care or advice. Users seeking information about a personal genetic disease, syndrome, or condition should consult with a qualified healthcare professional. See How can I find a genetics professional in my area? ( in the Handbook.

Reviewed: February 2009
Published: February 1, 2016