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Genetics Home Reference: your guide to understanding genetic conditions     A service of the U.S. National Library of Medicine®


Reviewed April 2014

What is the official name of the ITGB2 gene?

The official name of this gene is “integrin subunit beta 2.”

ITGB2 is the gene's official symbol. The ITGB2 gene is also known by other names, listed below.

What is the normal function of the ITGB2 gene?

The ITGB2 gene provides instructions for making one part (the β2 subunit) of at least four different proteins known as β2 integrins. The other subunit can be one of a variety of alpha (α) subunits that are produced from different genes. Integrins are a group of proteins that regulate the attachment of cells to one another (cell-cell adhesion) and to the surrounding network of proteins and other molecules (cell-matrix adhesion). Integrins also transmit signals that regulate cell growth and the activity of certain genes.

Integrins that contain the β2 subunit are found embedded in the membrane that surrounds white blood cells (leukocytes). β2 integrins help leukocytes gather at sites of infection or injury, where they are needed to contribute to the immune response. β2 integrins recognize signs of inflammation and attach (bind) to proteins called ligands on the lining of blood vessels. This binding leads to linkage (adhesion) of the leukocyte to the blood vessel wall. Signaling through the β2 integrins triggers the transport of the attached leukocyte across the blood vessel wall to the site of infection or injury.

Does the ITGB2 gene share characteristics with other genes?

The ITGB2 gene belongs to a family of genes called CD (CD molecules). It also belongs to a family of genes called complement (complement system). It also belongs to a family of genes called ITG (integrins).

A gene family is a group of genes that share important characteristics. Classifying individual genes into families helps researchers describe how genes are related to each other. For more information, see What are gene families? ( in the Handbook.

How are changes in the ITGB2 gene related to health conditions?

leukocyte adhesion deficiency type 1 - caused by mutations in the ITGB2 gene

At least 90 mutations in the ITGB2 gene have been found to cause leukocyte adhesion deficiency type 1. This condition is characterized by severe, recurrent infections and delayed healing after injury. Many of the mutations that cause this condition change single protein building blocks (amino acids) in the β2 subunit and lead to the production of a β2 subunit that cannot bind with other subunits to form integrins. Rarely, defective β2 subunits are able to form integrins, but the integrins cannot bind ligands. Leukocytes that lack these integrins cannot attach to the blood vessel wall or cross the vessel wall to contribute to the immune response. As a result, there is a decreased response to injury and foreign invaders, such as bacteria and fungi, resulting in frequent infections, delayed wound healing, and other signs and symptoms of leukocyte adhesion deficiency type 1.

Where is the ITGB2 gene located?

Cytogenetic Location: 21q22.3

Molecular Location on chromosome 21: base pairs 44,885,949 to 44,928,873

(Homo sapiens Annotation Release 107, GRCh38.p2) (NCBI (

The ITGB2 gene is located on the long (q) arm of chromosome 21 at position 22.3.

The ITGB2 gene is located on the long (q) arm of chromosome 21 at position 22.3.

More precisely, the ITGB2 gene is located from base pair 44,885,949 to base pair 44,928,873 on chromosome 21.

See How do geneticists indicate the location of a gene? ( in the Handbook.

Where can I find additional information about ITGB2?

You and your healthcare professional may find the following resources about ITGB2 helpful.

You may also be interested in these resources, which are designed for genetics professionals and researchers.

What other names do people use for the ITGB2 gene or gene products?

  • αDβ2
  • CD11b/ CD18
  • CD11c/CD18
  • CD11d/CD18
  • CD18
  • complement receptor C3 beta-subunit
  • complement receptor C3 subunit beta
  • CR3
  • integrin beta-2
  • integrin beta 2
  • integrin, beta 2 (complement component 3 receptor 3 and 4 subunit)
  • integrin beta chain, beta 2
  • LFA-1 (αLβ2)
  • Mac-1 (αMβ2)
  • p150/95 (αXβ2)

See How are genetic conditions and genes named? ( in the Handbook.

What glossary definitions help with understanding ITGB2?

acids ; bacteria ; cell ; cell adhesion ; deficiency ; gene ; immune response ; infection ; inflammation ; injury ; integrins ; leukocyte ; linkage ; protein ; receptor ; subunit ; white blood cells

You may find definitions for these and many other terms in the Genetics Home Reference Glossary.


  • NCBI Gene (
  • Parvaneh N, Mamishi S, Rezaei A, Rezaei N, Tamizifar B, Parvaneh L, Sherkat R, Ghalehbaghi B, Kashef S, Chavoshzadeh Z, Isaeian A, Ashrafi F, Aghamohammadi A. Characterization of 11 new cases of leukocyte adhesion deficiency type 1 with seven novel mutations in the ITGB2 gene. J Clin Immunol. 2010 Sep;30(5):756-60. doi: 10.1007/s10875-010-9433-2. Epub 2010 Jun 12. (
  • Schmidt S, Moser M, Sperandio M. The molecular basis of leukocyte recruitment and its deficiencies. Mol Immunol. 2013 Aug;55(1):49-58. doi: 10.1016/j.molimm.2012.11.006. Epub 2012 Dec 17. Review. (
  • van de Vijver E, Maddalena A, Sanal Ö, Holland SM, Uzel G, Madkaikar M, de Boer M, van Leeuwen K, Köker MY, Parvaneh N, Fischer A, Law SK, Klein N, Tezcan FI, Unal E, Patiroglu T, Belohradsky BH, Schwartz K, Somech R, Kuijpers TW, Roos D. Hematologically important mutations: leukocyte adhesion deficiency (first update). Blood Cells Mol Dis. 2012 Jan 15;48(1):53-61. doi: 10.1016/j.bcmd.2011.10.004. Epub 2011 Nov 30. Review. (


The resources on this site should not be used as a substitute for professional medical care or advice. Users seeking information about a personal genetic disease, syndrome, or condition should consult with a qualified healthcare professional. See How can I find a genetics professional in my area? ( in the Handbook.

Reviewed: April 2014
Published: February 1, 2016