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Genetics Home Reference: your guide to understanding genetic conditions     A service of the U.S. National Library of Medicine®


Reviewed June 2011

What is the official name of the HTRA1 gene?

The official name of this gene is “HtrA serine peptidase 1.”

HTRA1 is the gene's official symbol. The HTRA1 gene is also known by other names, listed below.

What is the normal function of the HTRA1 gene?

The HTRA1 gene provides instructions for making a protein that is found in many of the body's organs and tissues. This protein is a type of enzyme called a serine protease, which has an active center that cuts (cleaves) other proteins into smaller pieces. The HTRA1 enzyme helps break down many other kinds of proteins in the space surrounding cells (the extracellular matrix).

The HTRA1 enzyme also attaches (binds) to proteins in the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) family and slows down (inhibits) their ability to send chemical signals. TGF-β proteins normally help control many critical cell functions, including the growth and division (proliferation) of cells, the process by which cells mature to carry out specific functions (differentiation), cell movement (motility), and the self-destruction of cells (apoptosis). TGF-β signaling also plays an important role in the formation of new blood vessels (angiogenesis).

Researchers have proposed several additional functions for the HTRA1 enzyme. It may play a role in the stabilization of microtubules, which are rigid, hollow fibers that make up the cell's structural framework (cytoskeleton). Additionally, the HTRA1 enzyme may be involved in depositing minerals, such as calcium and phosphorus, in developing bone (mineralization). Studies have also suggested that the HTRA1 enzyme acts as a tumor suppressor, a protein that helps prevent the development of cancerous tumors by keeping cells from growing and dividing in an uncontrolled way.

Does the HTRA1 gene share characteristics with other genes?

The HTRA1 gene belongs to a family of genes called PRSS (serine peptidases).

A gene family is a group of genes that share important characteristics. Classifying individual genes into families helps researchers describe how genes are related to each other. For more information, see What are gene families? ( in the Handbook.

How are changes in the HTRA1 gene related to health conditions?

cerebral autosomal recessive arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy - caused by mutations in the HTRA1 gene

At least four mutations in the HTRA1 gene have been found to cause cerebral autosomal recessive arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy, commonly known as CARASIL. This condition is characterized by a highly increased risk of stroke, deterioration of cognitive function (dementia), premature hair loss (alopecia), and attacks of low back pain. These signs and symptoms usually become apparent in early to mid-adulthood.

The HTRA1 gene mutations responsible for CARASIL reduce or eliminate the function of the HTRA1 enzyme. As a result, the enzyme is not available to inhibit signaling by TGF-β proteins. Researchers suspect that abnormally increased TGF-β signaling alters the structure of small blood vessels, particularly in the brain. These blood vessel abnormalities increase the risk of stroke and lead to the death of nerve cells (neurons) in many areas of the brain. Dysregulation of TGF-β signaling may also underlie the hair loss and back pain seen in people with CARASIL, although the relationship between abnormal TGF-β signaling and these features is less clear.

age-related macular degeneration - associated with the HTRA1 gene

The HTRA1 gene is located on the long (q) arm of chromosome 10 in a region known as 10q26. This region has been strongly associated with the risk of developing age-related macular degeneration, a common cause of vision loss in older adults. Researchers have identified several variations (polymorphisms) in the HTRA1 gene that may explain the association between the 10q26 region and age-related macular degeneration. One of the variants, known as rs11200638, is found in an area of the gene called the promoter region, which starts the production of the HTRA1 enzyme.

It is unclear how a polymorphism in the HTRA1 gene might be related to age-related macular degeneration. In the 10q26 region, the HTRA1 gene is located next to a gene called ARMS2; changes in this gene have also been studied as a risk factor for the disease. Because the two genes are so close together, it is difficult to tell whether changes in one gene or the other, or possibly changes in both genes, account for the increased disease risk. Age-related macular degeneration is a complex condition that likely results from a combination of multiple genetic and environmental factors.

cancers - associated with the HTRA1 gene

The HTRA1 gene is less active (downregulated) in some cancerous tumors than in normal cells. Studies have found this gene downregulation in several forms of cancer, including ovarian cancer, cancer that occurs in the lining of the uterus (endometrial cancer), a form of skin cancer called melanoma, and a form of liver cancer called hepatocellular carcinoma. Having reduced amounts of the HTRA1 enzyme may be related to tumor progression, the risk that cancer will spread (metastasize) to other parts of the body, and resistance to treatment with chemotherapy. However, the mechanism by which downregulation of the HTRA1 gene influences cancer development and growth is unknown.

Where is the HTRA1 gene located?

Cytogenetic Location: 10q26.3

Molecular Location on chromosome 10: base pairs 122,461,525 to 122,514,908

(Homo sapiens Annotation Release 107, GRCh38.p2) (NCBI (

The HTRA1 gene is located on the long (q) arm of chromosome 10 at position 26.3.

The HTRA1 gene is located on the long (q) arm of chromosome 10 at position 26.3.

More precisely, the HTRA1 gene is located from base pair 122,461,525 to base pair 122,514,908 on chromosome 10.

See How do geneticists indicate the location of a gene? ( in the Handbook.

Where can I find additional information about HTRA1?

You and your healthcare professional may find the following resources about HTRA1 helpful.

You may also be interested in these resources, which are designed for genetics professionals and researchers.

What other names do people use for the HTRA1 gene or gene products?

  • ARMD7
  • HtrA
  • IGFBP5-protease
  • L56
  • ORF480
  • protease, serine, 11 (IGF binding)
  • PRSS11
  • serine protease HTRA1

See How are genetic conditions and genes named? ( in the Handbook.

What glossary definitions help with understanding HTRA1?

alopecia ; angiogenesis ; apoptosis ; arteriopathy ; autosomal ; autosomal recessive ; calcium ; cancer ; carcinoma ; cell ; chemotherapy ; chromosome ; cytoskeleton ; dementia ; differentiation ; endometrial ; enzyme ; extracellular ; extracellular matrix ; gene ; growth factor ; hepatocellular carcinoma ; leukoencephalopathy ; liver cancer ; melanoma ; metastasize ; ovarian ; phosphorus ; polymorphism ; progression ; proliferation ; promoter ; promoter region ; protease ; protein ; recessive ; serine ; subcortical ; tumor

You may find definitions for these and many other terms in the Genetics Home Reference Glossary.


  • An E, Sen S, Park SK, Gordish-Dressman H, Hathout Y. Identification of novel substrates for the serine protease HTRA1 in the human RPE secretome. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2010 Jul;51(7):3379-86. doi: 10.1167/iovs.09-4853. Epub 2010 Mar 5. (
  • Chien J, Ota T, Aletti G, Shridhar R, Boccellino M, Quagliuolo L, Baldi A, Shridhar V. Serine protease HtrA1 associates with microtubules and inhibits cell migration. Mol Cell Biol. 2009 Aug;29(15):4177-87. doi: 10.1128/MCB.00035-09. Epub 2009 May 26. (
  • Dewan A, Liu M, Hartman S, Zhang SS, Liu DT, Zhao C, Tam PO, Chan WM, Lam DS, Snyder M, Barnstable C, Pang CP, Hoh J. HTRA1 promoter polymorphism in wet age-related macular degeneration. Science. 2006 Nov 10;314(5801):989-92. Epub 2006 Oct 19. (
  • Fukutake T. Cerebral autosomal recessive arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CARASIL): from discovery to gene identification. J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis. 2011 Mar-Apr;20(2):85-93. doi: 10.1016/j.jstrokecerebrovasdis.2010.11.008. Epub 2011 Jan 7. Review. (
  • Hara K, Shiga A, Fukutake T, Nozaki H, Miyashita A, Yokoseki A, Kawata H, Koyama A, Arima K, Takahashi T, Ikeda M, Shiota H, Tamura M, Shimoe Y, Hirayama M, Arisato T, Yanagawa S, Tanaka A, Nakano I, Ikeda S, Yoshida Y, Yamamoto T, Ikeuchi T, Kuwano R, Nishizawa M, Tsuji S, Onodera O. Association of HTRA1 mutations and familial ischemic cerebral small-vessel disease. N Engl J Med. 2009 Apr 23;360(17):1729-39. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa0801560. (
  • Kanda A, Chen W, Othman M, Branham KE, Brooks M, Khanna R, He S, Lyons R, Abecasis GR, Swaroop A. A variant of mitochondrial protein LOC387715/ARMS2, not HTRA1, is strongly associated with age-related macular degeneration. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007 Oct 9;104(41):16227-32. Epub 2007 Sep 20. (
  • NCBI Gene (
  • Shiga A, Nozaki H, Yokoseki A, Nihonmatsu M, Kawata H, Kato T, Koyama A, Arima K, Ikeda M, Katada S, Toyoshima Y, Takahashi H, Tanaka A, Nakano I, Ikeuchi T, Nishizawa M, Onodera O. Cerebral small-vessel disease protein HTRA1 controls the amount of TGF-β1 via cleavage of proTGF-β1. Hum Mol Genet. 2011 May 1;20(9):1800-10. doi: 10.1093/hmg/ddr063. Epub 2011 Feb 14. (
  • Tong Y, Liao J, Zhang Y, Zhou J, Zhang H, Mao M. LOC387715/HTRA1 gene polymorphisms and susceptibility to age-related macular degeneration: A HuGE review and meta-analysis. Mol Vis. 2010 Oct 5;16:1958-81. Review. (
  • Yang Z, Camp NJ, Sun H, Tong Z, Gibbs D, Cameron DJ, Chen H, Zhao Y, Pearson E, Li X, Chien J, Dewan A, Harmon J, Bernstein PS, Shridhar V, Zabriskie NA, Hoh J, Howes K, Zhang K. A variant of the HTRA1 gene increases susceptibility to age-related macular degeneration. Science. 2006 Nov 10;314(5801):992-3. Epub 2006 Oct 19. (
  • Yang Z, Tong Z, Chen Y, Zeng J, Lu F, Sun X, Zhao C, Wang K, Davey L, Chen H, London N, Muramatsu D, Salasar F, Carmona R, Kasuga D, Wang X, Bedell M, Dixie M, Zhao P, Yang R, Gibbs D, Liu X, Li Y, Li C, Li Y, Campochiaro B, Constantine R, Zack DJ, Campochiaro P, Fu Y, Li DY, Katsanis N, Zhang K. Genetic and functional dissection of HTRA1 and LOC387715 in age-related macular degeneration. PLoS Genet. 2010 Feb 5;6(2):e1000836. doi: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1000836. (


The resources on this site should not be used as a substitute for professional medical care or advice. Users seeking information about a personal genetic disease, syndrome, or condition should consult with a qualified healthcare professional. See How can I find a genetics professional in my area? ( in the Handbook.

Reviewed: June 2011
Published: February 1, 2016