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Reviewed June 2015
What is the official name of the H19 gene?
The official name of this gene is “H19, imprinted maternally expressed transcript (non-protein coding).”
H19 is the gene's official symbol. The H19 gene is also known by other names, listed below.
Read more about gene names and symbols on the About page.
What is the normal function of the H19 gene?
The H19 gene provides instructions for making a molecule called a noncoding RNA. (RNA is a chemical cousin of DNA.) Unlike many genes, the H19 gene does not contain instructions for making a protein. The function of the gene is unknown, but researchers believe that it may act as a tumor suppressor, keeping cells from growing and dividing too fast or in an uncontrolled way. This gene is highly active in various tissues before birth and appears to play an important role in early development.
People inherit one copy of most genes from their mother and one copy from their father. Both copies are typically active, or "turned on," in cells. However, the activity of the H19 gene depends on which parent it was inherited from. Only the copy inherited from a person's mother (the maternally inherited copy) is active; the copy inherited from the father (the paternally inherited copy) is not active. This sort of parent-specific difference in gene activation is caused by a phenomenon called genomic imprinting.
H19 is part of a cluster of genes on the short (p) arm of chromosome 11 that undergo genomic imprinting. Another gene in this cluster, IGF2, is also involved in growth and development. A nearby region of DNA known as imprinting center 1 (IC1) or the H19 differentially methylated region (H19 DMR) controls the parent-specific genomic imprinting of both the H19 and IGF2 genes. The IC1 region undergoes a process called methylation, which is a chemical reaction that attaches small molecules called methyl groups to certain segments of DNA. Methylation, which occurs during the formation of an egg or sperm cell, is a way of marking or "stamping" the parent of origin. The IC1 region is normally methylated only on the paternally inherited copy of chromosome 11.
How are changes in the H19 gene related to health conditions?
Genetics Home Reference provides information about breast cancer, which is also associated with changes in the H19 gene.
Where is the H19 gene located?
Cytogenetic Location: 11p15.5
Molecular Location on chromosome 11: base pairs 1,995,175 to 1,997,834
The H19 gene is located on the short (p) arm of chromosome 11 at position 15.5.
More precisely, the H19 gene is located from base pair 1,995,175 to base pair 1,997,834 on chromosome 11.
See How do geneticists indicate the location of a gene? in the Handbook.
Where can I find additional information about H19?
You and your healthcare professional may find the following resources about H19 helpful.
You may also be interested in these resources, which are designed for genetics professionals and researchers.
What other names do people use for the H19 gene or gene products?
See How are genetic conditions and genes named? in the Handbook.
Where can I find general information about genes?
The Handbook provides basic information about genetics in clear language.
These links provide additional genetics resources that may be useful.
What glossary definitions help with understanding H19?
cancer ; cell ; chromosome ; DNA ; egg ; epigenetic ; expressed ; gene ; imprinting ; inherit ; inherited ; methyl ; methylation ; molecule ; protein ; RNA ; short stature ; sperm ; stature ; syndrome ; transcript ; tumor
You may find definitions for these and many other terms in the Genetics Home Reference Glossary.
See also Understanding Medical Terminology.
References (7 links)
The resources on this site should not be used as a substitute for professional medical care or advice. Users seeking information about a personal genetic disease, syndrome, or condition should consult with a qualified healthcare professional. See How can I find a genetics professional in my area? in the Handbook.