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The official name of this gene is “glyceronephosphate O-acyltransferase.”
GNPAT is the gene's official symbol. The GNPAT gene is also known by other names, listed below.
The GNPAT gene provides instructions for making an enzyme known as glyceronephosphate O-acyltransferase (GNPAT) or dihydroxyacetonephosphate acyltransferase (DHAPAT). This enzyme is found in structures called peroxisomes, which are sac-like compartments within cells that contain enzymes needed to break down many different substances. Peroxisomes are also important for the production of fats (lipids) used in digestion and in the nervous system.
Within peroxisomes, the DHAPAT enzyme is responsible for the first step in the production of lipid molecules called plasmalogens. These molecules are found in cell membranes throughout the body. They are also abundant in myelin, which is the protective substance that covers nerve cells. However, little is known about the functions of plasmalogens. Researchers suspect that these molecules may help protect cells from oxidative stress, which occurs when unstable molecules called free radicals accumulate to levels that damage or kill cells. Plasmalogens may also play important roles in interactions between lipids and proteins, the transmission of chemical signals in cells, and the fusion of cell membranes.
At least five mutations in the GNPAT gene have been found to cause rhizomelic chondrodysplasia punctata type 2 (RCDP2). These mutations prevent cells from making any functional DHAPAT enzyme. A shortage of this enzyme disrupts peroxisome function and severely reduces the amount of plasmalogens within cells. It is unclear how these abnormalities lead to shortened long bones, intellectual disability, and the other characteristic features of RCDP2.
Cytogenetic Location: 1q42
Molecular Location on chromosome 1: base pairs 231,241,172 to 231,277,972
The GNPAT gene is located on the long (q) arm of chromosome 1 at position 42.
More precisely, the GNPAT gene is located from base pair 231,241,172 to base pair 231,277,972 on chromosome 1.
See How do geneticists indicate the location of a gene? (http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/handbook/howgeneswork/genelocation) in the Handbook.
You and your healthcare professional may find the following resources about GNPAT helpful.
You may also be interested in these resources, which are designed for genetics professionals and researchers.
See How are genetic conditions and genes named? (http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/handbook/mutationsanddisorders/naming) in the Handbook.
cell ; CoA ; digestion ; disability ; enzyme ; free radicals ; gene ; glycolipids ; lipid ; nervous system ; oxidative stress ; peroxisomes ; phosphate ; phospholipids ; stress
You may find definitions for these and many other terms in the Genetics Home Reference Glossary (http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/glossary).
The resources on this site should not be used as a substitute for professional medical care or advice. Users seeking information about a personal genetic disease, syndrome, or condition should consult with a qualified healthcare professional. See How can I find a genetics professional in my area? (http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/handbook/consult/findingprofessional) in the Handbook.