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Genetics Home Reference: your guide to understanding genetic conditions     A service of the U.S. National Library of Medicine®


Reviewed August 2013

What is the official name of the D2HGDH gene?

The official name of this gene is “D-2-hydroxyglutarate dehydrogenase.”

D2HGDH is the gene's official symbol. The D2HGDH gene is also known by other names, listed below.

What is the normal function of the D2HGDH gene?

The D2HGDH gene provides instructions for making an enzyme called D-2-hydroxyglutarate dehydrogenase. This enzyme is found in mitochondria, which are the energy-producing centers within cells. Within mitochondria, the enzyme participates in reactions that produce energy for cell activities. Specifically, D-2-hydroxyglutarate dehydrogenase converts a compound called D-2-hydroxyglutarate to another compound called 2-ketoglutarate. A series of additional enzymes further process 2-ketoglutarate to produce energy.

How are changes in the D2HGDH gene related to health conditions?

2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria - caused by mutations in the D2HGDH gene

Researchers have identified more than 30 D2HGDH gene mutations that cause a type of 2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria known as D-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria (D-2-HGA) type I. This condition has a variety of signs and symptoms that result primarily from progressive damage to the brain beginning early in life.

Some D2HGDH gene mutations change single protein building blocks (amino acids) in the D-2-hydroxyglutarate dehydrogenase enzyme, which likely impairs its function. Other mutations lead to the production of an abnormally short, nonfunctional version of the enzyme. With a shortage of functional enzyme, D-2-hydroxyglutarate is not broken down but instead builds up in cells. At high levels, this compound can damage cells and lead to cell death. Brain cells appear to be the most vulnerable to the toxic effects of this compound, which may explain why the signs and symptoms of D-2-HGA type I primarily involve the brain.

Where is the D2HGDH gene located?

Cytogenetic Location: 2q37.3

Molecular Location on chromosome 2: base pairs 241,734,579 to 241,768,816

(Homo sapiens Annotation Release 107, GRCh38.p2) (NCBI (

The D2HGDH gene is located on the long (q) arm of chromosome 2 at position 37.3.

The D2HGDH gene is located on the long (q) arm of chromosome 2 at position 37.3.

More precisely, the D2HGDH gene is located from base pair 241,734,579 to base pair 241,768,816 on chromosome 2.

See How do geneticists indicate the location of a gene? ( in the Handbook.

Where can I find additional information about D2HGDH?

You and your healthcare professional may find the following resources about D2HGDH helpful.

You may also be interested in these resources, which are designed for genetics professionals and researchers.

What other names do people use for the D2HGDH gene or gene products?

  • 2-hydroxypentanedioic acid
  • D2HGD
  • FLJ42195
  • MGC25181

See How are genetic conditions and genes named? ( in the Handbook.

What glossary definitions help with understanding D2HGDH?

acids ; aciduria ; cell ; compound ; dehydrogenase ; enzyme ; gene ; mitochondria ; protein ; toxic

You may find definitions for these and many other terms in the Genetics Home Reference Glossary.


  • Kranendijk M, Struys EA, Gibson KM, Wickenhagen WV, Abdenur JE, Buechner J, Christensen E, de Kremer RD, Errami A, Gissen P, Gradowska W, Hobson E, Islam L, Korman SH, Kurczynski T, Maranda B, Meli C, Rizzo C, Sansaricq C, Trefz FK, Webster R, Jakobs C, Salomons GS. Evidence for genetic heterogeneity in D-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria. Hum Mutat. 2010 Mar;31(3):279-83. doi: 10.1002/humu.21186. (
  • Kranendijk M, Struys EA, Salomons GS, Van der Knaap MS, Jakobs C. Progress in understanding 2-hydroxyglutaric acidurias. J Inherit Metab Dis. 2012 Jul;35(4):571-87. doi: 10.1007/s10545-012-9462-5. Epub 2012 Mar 6. Review. (
  • NCBI Gene (
  • Struys EA, Korman SH, Salomons GS, Darmin PS, Achouri Y, van Schaftingen E, Verhoeven NM, Jakobs C. Mutations in phenotypically mild D-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria. Ann Neurol. 2005 Oct;58(4):626-30. (
  • Struys EA, Salomons GS, Achouri Y, Van Schaftingen E, Grosso S, Craigen WJ, Verhoeven NM, Jakobs C. Mutations in the D-2-hydroxyglutarate dehydrogenase gene cause D-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria. Am J Hum Genet. 2005 Feb;76(2):358-60. Epub 2004 Dec 17. (
  • Struys EA. D-2-Hydroxyglutaric aciduria: unravelling the biochemical pathway and the genetic defect. J Inherit Metab Dis. 2006 Feb;29(1):21-9. Review. (


The resources on this site should not be used as a substitute for professional medical care or advice. Users seeking information about a personal genetic disease, syndrome, or condition should consult with a qualified healthcare professional. See How can I find a genetics professional in my area? ( in the Handbook.

Reviewed: August 2013
Published: February 8, 2016