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Genetics Home Reference: your guide to understanding genetic conditions     A service of the U.S. National Library of Medicine®


Reviewed April 2014

What is the official name of the CYP11B1 gene?

The official name of this gene is “cytochrome P450 family 11 subfamily B member 1.”

CYP11B1 is the gene's official symbol. The CYP11B1 gene is also known by other names, listed below.

What is the normal function of the CYP11B1 gene?

The CYP11B1 gene provides instructions for making an enzyme called 11-beta-hydroxylase. This enzyme is found in the adrenal glands, which are located on top of the kidneys. The 11-beta-hydroxylase enzyme is a member of the cytochrome P450 family of enzymes. These enzymes are involved in the formation and breakdown of various molecules within cells.

The 11-beta-hydroxylase enzyme helps produce hormones called cortisol and corticosterone. Specifically, the enzyme helps convert a molecule called 11-deoxycortisol to cortisol, and helps convert another molecule called 11-deoxycorticosterone to corticosterone. These processes are triggered by the release of a hormone called adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) by the pituitary gland, located at the base of the brain.

Cortisol helps maintain blood sugar levels, protects the body from physical stress, and suppresses inflammation. Corticosterone is converted to the hormone aldosterone by the aldosterone synthase enzyme, which is produced from the nearby CYP11B2 gene. Aldosterone helps control blood pressure by maintaining proper salt and fluid levels in the body.

Does the CYP11B1 gene share characteristics with other genes?

The CYP11B1 gene belongs to a family of genes called CYP (cytochrome P450s).

A gene family is a group of genes that share important characteristics. Classifying individual genes into families helps researchers describe how genes are related to each other. For more information, see What are gene families? ( in the Handbook.

How are changes in the CYP11B1 gene related to health conditions?

congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 11-beta-hydroxylase deficiency - caused by mutations in the CYP11B1 gene

More than 80 mutations in the CYP11B1 gene have been found to cause congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) due to 11-beta-hydroxylase deficiency, a disorder in which the adrenal glands produce excess male sex hormones (androgens). Most of these mutations change single protein building blocks (amino acids) in the 11-beta-hydroxylase enzyme and decrease the function of the enzyme. CYP11B1 gene mutations that severely reduce or eliminate the function of the enzyme typically result in the classic form of CAH due to 11-beta-hydroxylase deficiency. Mutations that allow for some enzyme function usually result in the non-classic form of the disorder.

Some mutations that cause the classic form of CAH due to 11-beta-hydroxylase deficiency fuse sections of the CYP11B1 gene with sections of a nearby gene called CYP11B2. The added part of the CYP11B2 gene contains a section called a promoter region, which normally controls (regulates) production of the protein made by the CYP11B2 gene. As a result, the CYP11B1 gene is regulated by the CYP11B2 gene promoter region rather than its own promoter region. In addition, the fusion typically deletes parts of the CYP11B1 gene. These changes in the gene's regulation and structure diminish production of 11-beta-hydroxylase.

Both types of CAH due to 11-beta-hydroxylase deficiency interfere with the production of cortisol and corticosterone. The molecules that are used to form these hormones instead build up in the adrenal gland and are converted to androgens. The excess production of androgens leads to abnormalities of sexual development in people with CAH due to 11-beta-hydroxylase deficiency. A buildup of the molecule 11-deoxycorticosterone, the substance that 11-beta-hydroxylase converts to form corticosterone, increases salt retention, leading to high blood pressure (hypertension) in individuals with the classic form of CAH due to 11-beta-hydroxylase deficiency.

familial hyperaldosteronism - caused by mutations in the CYP11B1 gene

A genetic change affecting the CYP11B1 gene causes familial hyperaldosteronism type I, a disorder that leads to hypertension. This change joins (fuses) a section of the CYP11B1 gene called a promoter region, which normally helps start the production of the 11-beta-hydroxylase enzyme, to the section of the CYP11B2 gene that provides instructions for making aldosterone synthase.

By binding to the CYP11B1 gene's promoter region, ACTH normally triggers production of the 11-beta-hydroxylase enzyme. In the fusion gene, ACTH binding abnormally triggers production of aldosterone synthase. High levels of aldosterone synthase result in excessive aldosterone production, which leads to the hypertension associated with familial hyperaldosteronism type I.

Where is the CYP11B1 gene located?

Cytogenetic Location: 8q21

Molecular Location on chromosome 8: base pairs 142,872,354 to 142,879,846

(Homo sapiens Annotation Release 107, GRCh38.p2) (NCBI (

The CYP11B1 gene is located on the long (q) arm of chromosome 8 at position 21.

The CYP11B1 gene is located on the long (q) arm of chromosome 8 at position 21.

More precisely, the CYP11B1 gene is located from base pair 142,872,354 to base pair 142,879,846 on chromosome 8.

See How do geneticists indicate the location of a gene? ( in the Handbook.

Where can I find additional information about CYP11B1?

You and your healthcare professional may find the following resources about CYP11B1 helpful.

You may also be interested in these resources, which are designed for genetics professionals and researchers.

What other names do people use for the CYP11B1 gene or gene products?

  • C11B1_HUMAN
  • CPN1
  • CYP11B
  • cytochrome P450 11B1, mitochondrial
  • cytochrome P450 11B1, mitochondrial isoform 1 precursor
  • cytochrome P450 11B1, mitochondrial isoform 2 precursor
  • cytochrome P450C11
  • cytochrome P-450c11
  • cytochrome P450, family 11, subfamily B, polypeptide 1
  • cytochrome P450, subfamily XIB (steroid 11-beta-hydroxylase), polypeptide 1
  • cytochrome p450 XIB1
  • DKFZp686B05283
  • FHI
  • FLJ36771
  • P450C11
  • steroid 11-beta-hydroxylase
  • steroid 11-beta-monooxygenase

See How are genetic conditions and genes named? ( in the Handbook.

What glossary definitions help with understanding CYP11B1?

acids ; adrenal glands ; aldosterone ; androgens ; breakdown ; congenital ; cytochrome P450 ; deficiency ; enzyme ; familial ; fusion gene ; gene ; hormone ; hyperplasia ; hypertension ; inflammation ; molecule ; pituitary gland ; precursor ; promoter ; promoter region ; protein ; stress

You may find definitions for these and many other terms in the Genetics Home Reference Glossary.


  • Martinez-Aguayo A, Fardella C. Genetics of hypertensive syndrome. Horm Res. 2009;71(5):253-9. doi: 10.1159/000208798. Epub 2009 Apr 1. Review. (
  • Moraitis AG, Rainey WE, Auchus RJ. Gene mutations that promote adrenal aldosterone production, sodium retention, and hypertension. Appl Clin Genet. 2013 Dec 24;7:1-13. doi: 10.2147/TACG.S35571. Review. (
  • NCBI Gene (
  • Nimkarn S, New MI. Steroid 11beta- hydroxylase deficiency congenital adrenal hyperplasia. Trends Endocrinol Metab. 2008 Apr;19(3):96-9. doi: 10.1016/j.tem.2008.01.002. Epub 2008 Feb 21. Review. (
  • Parajes S, Loidi L, Reisch N, Dhir V, Rose IT, Hampel R, Quinkler M, Conway GS, Castro-Feijóo L, Araujo-Vilar D, Pombo M, Dominguez F, Williams EL, Cole TR, Kirk JM, Kaminsky E, Rumsby G, Arlt W, Krone N. Functional consequences of seven novel mutations in the CYP11B1 gene: four mutations associated with nonclassic and three mutations causing classic 11{beta}-hydroxylase deficiency. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2010 Feb;95(2):779-88. doi: 10.1210/jc.2009-0651. Epub 2010 Jan 20. (
  • Peter M. Congenital adrenal hyperplasia: 11beta-hydroxylase deficiency. Semin Reprod Med. 2002 Aug;20(3):249-54. Review. (
  • Quack I, Vonend O, Rump LC. Familial hyperaldosteronism I-III. Horm Metab Res. 2010 Jun;42(6):424-8. doi: 10.1055/s-0029-1246187. Epub 2010 Feb 3. Review. (
  • Stowasser M, Gordon RD. Familial hyperaldosteronism. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2001 Sep;78(3):215-29. Review. (
  • Stowasser M, Gordon RD. Monogenic mineralocorticoid hypertension. Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2006 Sep;20(3):401-20. Review. (
  • Stowasser M, Gunasekera TG, Gordon RD. Familial varieties of primary aldosteronism. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol. 2001 Dec;28(12):1087-90. Review. (
  • Williams SS. Advances in genetic hypertension. Curr Opin Pediatr. 2007 Apr;19(2):192-8. Review. (


The resources on this site should not be used as a substitute for professional medical care or advice. Users seeking information about a personal genetic disease, syndrome, or condition should consult with a qualified healthcare professional. See How can I find a genetics professional in my area? ( in the Handbook.

Reviewed: April 2014
Published: February 1, 2016