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The official name of this gene is “CDGSH iron sulfur domain 2.”
CISD2 is the gene's official symbol. The CISD2 gene is also known by other names, listed below.
The CISD2 gene provides instructions for making a protein that is found in the outer membrane of cell structures called mitochondria. Mitochondria are involved in a wide variety of cellular activities, including energy production, chemical signaling, and regulation of cell growth and division. The exact function of the CISD2 protein is unknown, but it is thought to help keep mitochondria functioning normally.
At least one mutation in the CISD2 gene has been found to cause Wolfram syndrome. This condition is characterized by a lack of insulin leading to increased blood sugar (diabetes mellitus), a degeneration of nerves that carry information from the eyes to the brain (optic atrophy), and a number of other features involving the urinary tract, the brain, and hearing. People with this CISD2 gene mutation also experience gastrointestinal ulcers and excessive bleeding after injury.
The CISD2 gene mutation that causes Wolfram syndrome replaces the amino acid glutamic acid with the amino acid glutamine at position 37 in the CISD2 protein (written as Glu37Gln or E37Q). This mutation results in an abnormally small, nonfunctional CISD2 protein. As a result, the function of the mitochondria is impaired and they eventually break down. Since the mitochondria provide energy to cells, the loss of mitochondria leads to decreased energy for cells. Cells that do not have enough energy to function will eventually die. Cells with high energy demands, such as nerve cells in the brain, eyes, or gastrointestinal tract, are most susceptible to cell death due to reduced energy. The gradual loss of cells in various body systems likely causes the signs and symptoms of Wolfram syndrome. When Wolfram syndrome is caused by CISD2 gene mutations, it is sometimes referred to as Wolfram syndrome type 2.
Cytogenetic Location: 4q24
Molecular Location on chromosome 4: base pairs 102,828,133 to 102,892,806
The CISD2 gene is located on the long (q) arm of chromosome 4 at position 24.
More precisely, the CISD2 gene is located from base pair 102,828,133 to base pair 102,892,806 on chromosome 4.
See How do geneticists indicate the location of a gene? (http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/handbook/howgeneswork/genelocation) in the Handbook.
You and your healthcare professional may find the following resources about CISD2 helpful.
You may also be interested in these resources, which are designed for genetics professionals and researchers.
See How are genetic conditions and genes named? (http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/handbook/mutationsanddisorders/naming) in the Handbook.
amino acid ; atrophy ; autophagy ; cell ; diabetes ; diabetes mellitus ; domain ; endoplasmic reticulum ; gastrointestinal ; gene ; glutamic acid ; glutamine ; injury ; insulin ; iron ; mitochondria ; mutation ; optic atrophy ; protein ; syndrome
You may find definitions for these and many other terms in the Genetics Home Reference Glossary (http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/glossary).
The resources on this site should not be used as a substitute for professional medical care or advice. Users seeking information about a personal genetic disease, syndrome, or condition should consult with a qualified healthcare professional. See How can I find a genetics professional in my area? (http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/handbook/consult/findingprofessional) in the Handbook.