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Genetics Home Reference: your guide to understanding genetic conditions
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ANK2

Reviewed April 2006

What is the official name of the ANK2 gene?

The official name of this gene is “ankyrin 2, neuronal.”

ANK2 is the gene's official symbol. The ANK2 gene is also known by other names, listed below.

What is the normal function of the ANK2 gene?

The ANK2 gene provides instructions for making a protein called ankyrin-2. Ankyrin-2 is part of a larger family of ankyrins, which interact with many other types of proteins in cells throughout the body. Ankyrins ensure that certain proteins are inserted into the correct locations in the cell membrane and are anchored to the cell's structural framework (the cytoskeleton). Ankyrins play key roles in important cellular functions including movement, growth, and division.

The ankyrin-2 protein is active in many cell types, particularly in the brain and in heart (cardiac) muscle. This protein mainly targets ion channels, which are complexes of proteins that transport charged atoms (ions) across cell membranes. In the heart, the flow of ions (such as sodium, potassium, and calcium) through ion channels is critical for signaling the heart to beat and for maintaining a normal heart rhythm. Ankyrin-2 inserts these channels into their proper locations in the cell membrane so they can regulate the flow of ions into and out of cardiac muscle cells.

Does the ANK2 gene share characteristics with other genes?

The ANK2 gene belongs to a family of genes called ANKRD (ankyrin repeat domain containing).

A gene family is a group of genes that share important characteristics. Classifying individual genes into families helps researchers describe how genes are related to each other. For more information, see What are gene families? (http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/handbook/howgeneswork/genefamilies) in the Handbook.

How are changes in the ANK2 gene related to health conditions?

Romano-Ward syndrome - associated with the ANK2 gene

At least 10 mutations in the ANK2 gene have been associated with a variety of heart problems. It is unclear whether these mutations cause Romano-Ward syndrome or lead to another heart condition with some of the same signs and symptoms. Most often, mutations in the ANK2 gene lead to abnormalities of the heart's natural pacemaker (the sinoatrial node), a heart rate that is slower than normal (bradycardia), a disruption in the rhythm of the heart's lower chambers (ventricular arrhythmia), and an increased risk of fainting (syncope) and sudden death. Other symptoms, including seizures, dizziness, and migraine headaches, also have been reported in people with ANK2 mutations.

Each of the identified mutations in the ANK2 gene changes a single protein building block (amino acid) in a critical region of the ankyrin-2 protein. As a result, the altered protein cannot target ion channels to their correct locations in cardiac muscle cells or other types of cells. Although the channels are produced normally by the cell, they are unable to function if they are not inserted correctly into the cell membrane. This loss of functional channels in the heart disrupts the normal flow of ions, which alters the heart's normal rhythm and probably interferes with other aspects of cardiac function.

Where is the ANK2 gene located?

Cytogenetic Location: 4q25-q27

Molecular Location on chromosome 4: base pairs 112,818,082 to 113,383,739

The ANK2 gene is located on the long (q) arm of chromosome 4 between positions 25 and 27.

The ANK2 gene is located on the long (q) arm of chromosome 4 between positions 25 and 27.

More precisely, the ANK2 gene is located from base pair 112,818,082 to base pair 113,383,739 on chromosome 4.

See How do geneticists indicate the location of a gene? (http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/handbook/howgeneswork/genelocation) in the Handbook.

Where can I find additional information about ANK2?

You and your healthcare professional may find the following resources about ANK2 helpful.

You may also be interested in these resources, which are designed for genetics professionals and researchers.

What other names do people use for the ANK2 gene or gene products?

  • ANK2_HUMAN
  • ankyrin-2, nonerythrocytic
  • ankyrin B
  • ankyrin, brain
  • ankyrin, nonerythroid
  • brank-2
  • LQT4

See How are genetic conditions and genes named? (http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/handbook/mutationsanddisorders/naming) in the Handbook.

What glossary definitions help with understanding ANK2?

amino acid ; arrhythmia ; bradycardia ; calcium ; cardiac ; cell ; cell membrane ; critical region ; cytoskeleton ; fainting ; gene ; ions ; long QT syndrome ; migraine ; muscle cells ; pacemaker ; potassium ; protein ; sinoatrial node ; sodium ; syncope ; syndrome

You may find definitions for these and many other terms in the Genetics Home Reference Glossary.

References

  • Chiang CE. Congenital and acquired long QT syndrome. Current concepts and management. Cardiol Rev. 2004 Jul-Aug;12(4):222-34. Review. (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15191637?dopt=Abstract)
  • Gene Review: Long QT Syndrome (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK1129)
  • Mohler PJ, Bennett V. Ankyrin-based cardiac arrhythmias: a new class of channelopathies due to loss of cellular targeting. Curr Opin Cardiol. 2005 May;20(3):189-93. Review. (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15861006?dopt=Abstract)
  • Mohler PJ, Gramolini AO, Bennett V. Ankyrins. J Cell Sci. 2002 Apr 15;115(Pt 8):1565-6. (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11950874?dopt=Abstract)
  • Mohler PJ, Schott JJ, Gramolini AO, Dilly KW, Guatimosim S, duBell WH, Song LS, Haurogné K, Kyndt F, Ali ME, Rogers TB, Lederer WJ, Escande D, Le Marec H, Bennett V. Ankyrin-B mutation causes type 4 long-QT cardiac arrhythmia and sudden cardiac death. Nature. 2003 Feb 6;421(6923):634-9. (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12571597?dopt=Abstract)
  • Mohler PJ, Splawski I, Napolitano C, Bottelli G, Sharpe L, Timothy K, Priori SG, Keating MT, Bennett V. A cardiac arrhythmia syndrome caused by loss of ankyrin-B function. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004 Jun 15;101(24):9137-42. Epub 2004 Jun 3. (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15178757?dopt=Abstract)
  • Nattel S. Human genetics: Lost anchors cost lives. Nature. 2003 Feb 6;421(6923):587, 589-90. (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12571577?dopt=Abstract)
  • NCBI Gene (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/gene/287)
  • Sherman J, Tester DJ, Ackerman MJ. Targeted mutational analysis of ankyrin-B in 541 consecutive, unrelated patients referred for long QT syndrome genetic testing and 200 healthy subjects. Heart Rhythm. 2005 Nov;2(11):1218-23. (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16253912?dopt=Abstract)

 

The resources on this site should not be used as a substitute for professional medical care or advice. Users seeking information about a personal genetic disease, syndrome, or condition should consult with a qualified healthcare professional. See How can I find a genetics professional in my area? (http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/handbook/consult/findingprofessional) in the Handbook.

 
Reviewed: April 2006
Published: August 3, 2015