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Spondyloepimetaphyseal dysplasia, Strudwick type

Reviewed July 2008

What is spondyloepimetaphyseal dysplasia, Strudwick type?

Spondyloepimetaphyseal dysplasia, Strudwick type is an inherited disorder of bone growth that results in short stature (dwarfism), skeletal abnormalities, and problems with vision. This condition affects the bones of the spine (spondylo-) and two regions (epiphyses and metaphyses) near the ends of long bones in the arms and legs. The Strudwick type was named after the first reported patient with the disorder.

People with this condition have short stature from birth, with a very short trunk and shortened limbs. Their hands and feet, however, are usually average-sized. Affected individuals may have an abnormally curved lower back (lordosis) or a spine that curves to the side (scoliosis). This abnormal spinal curvature may be severe and can cause problems with breathing. Instability of the spinal bones (vertebrae) in the neck may increase the risk of spinal cord damage. Other skeletal features include flattened vertebrae (platyspondyly), severe protrusion of the breastbone (pectus carinatum), an abnormality of the hip joint that causes the upper leg bones to turn inward (coxa vara), and an inward- and upward-turning foot (clubfoot). Arthritis may develop early in life.

People with spondyloepimetaphyseal dysplasia, Strudwick type have mild changes in their facial features. Some infants are born with an opening in the roof of the mouth (a cleft palate) and their cheekbones may appear flattened. Eye problems that can impair vision are common, such as severe nearsightedness (high myopia) and tearing of the lining of the eye (retinal detachment).

How common is spondyloepimetaphyseal dysplasia, Strudwick type?

This condition is rare; only a few affected individuals have been reported worldwide.

What genes are related to spondyloepimetaphyseal dysplasia, Strudwick type?

Spondyloepimetaphyseal dysplasia, Strudwick type is one of a spectrum of skeletal disorders caused by mutations in the COL2A1 gene. This gene provides instructions for making a protein that forms type II collagen. This type of collagen is found mostly in the clear gel that fills the eyeball (the vitreous) and cartilage. Cartilage is a tough, flexible tissue that makes up much of the skeleton during early development. Most cartilage is later converted to bone, except for the cartilage that continues to cover and protect the ends of bones and is present in the nose and external ears. Type II collagen is essential for the normal development of bones and other connective tissues that form the body's supportive framework.

Most mutations in the COL2A1 gene that cause spondyloepimetaphyseal dysplasia, Strudwick type interfere with the assembly of type II collagen molecules. Abnormal collagen prevents bones and other connective tissues from developing properly, which leads to the signs and symptoms of spondyloepimetaphyseal dysplasia, Strudwick type.

Related Gene(s)

Changes in this gene are associated with spondyloepimetaphyseal dysplasia, Strudwick type.

  • COL2A1

How do people inherit spondyloepimetaphyseal dysplasia, Strudwick type?

This condition is inherited in an autosomal dominant pattern, which means one copy of the altered gene in each cell is sufficient to cause the disorder.

Where can I find information about diagnosis or management of spondyloepimetaphyseal dysplasia, Strudwick type?

These resources address the diagnosis or management of spondyloepimetaphyseal dysplasia, Strudwick type, and may include treatment providers.

  • Genetic Testing Registry: Spondyloepimetaphyseal dysplasia Strudwick type (
  • MedlinePlus Encyclopedia: Clubfoot (
  • MedlinePlus Encyclopedia: Retinal Detachment (
  • MedlinePlus Encyclopedia: Scoliosis (

You might also find information on the diagnosis or management of spondyloepimetaphyseal dysplasia, Strudwick type, in Educational resources and Patient support.

General information about the diagnosis ( and management ( of genetic conditions is available in the Handbook. Read more about genetic testing (, particularly the difference between clinical tests and research tests (

To locate a healthcare provider, see How can I find a genetics professional in my area? ( in the Handbook.

Where can I find additional information about spondyloepimetaphyseal dysplasia, Strudwick type?

You may find the following resources about spondyloepimetaphyseal dysplasia, Strudwick type, helpful. These materials are written for the general public.

You may also be interested in these resources, which are designed for healthcare professionals and researchers.

What other names do people use for spondyloepimetaphyseal dysplasia, Strudwick type?

  • Dappled metaphysis syndrome
  • SED Strudwick
  • SEMD, Strudwick type
  • SMED, Strudwick type
  • SMED, type I
  • Spondylometaepiphyseal dysplasia congenita, Strudwick type
  • Spondylometaphyseal dysplasia (SMD)
  • Strudwick syndrome

For more information about naming genetic conditions, see the Genetics Home Reference Condition Naming Guidelines ( and How are genetic conditions and genes named? ( in the Handbook.

What if I still have specific questions about spondyloepimetaphyseal dysplasia, Strudwick type?

Ask the Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center (

What glossary definitions help with understanding spondyloepimetaphyseal dysplasia, Strudwick type?

arthritis ; autosomal ; autosomal dominant ; cartilage ; cell ; cleft palate ; clubfoot ; collagen ; coxa vara ; dwarfism ; dysplasia ; gene ; inherited ; joint ; lordosis ; metaphysis ; myopia ; nearsightedness ; palate ; protein ; scoliosis ; short stature ; spectrum ; stature ; syndrome ; tissue

You may find definitions for these and many other terms in the Genetics Home Reference Glossary.


  • Amirfeyz R, Taylor A, Smithson SF, Gargan MF. Orthopaedic manifestations and management of spondyloepimetaphyseal dysplasia Strudwick type. J Pediatr Orthop B. 2006 Jan;15(1):41-4. (
  • Tiller GE, Polumbo PA, Weis MA, Bogaert R, Lachman RS, Cohn DH, Rimoin DL, Eyre DR. Dominant mutations in the type II collagen gene, COL2A1, produce spondyloepimetaphyseal dysplasia, Strudwick type. Nat Genet. 1995 Sep;11(1):87-9. (
  • Tysoe C, Saunders J, White L, Hills N, Nicol M, Evans G, Cole T, Chapman S, Pope FM. A glycine to aspartic acid substitution of COL2A1 in a family with the Strudwick variant of spondyloepimetaphyseal dysplasia. QJM. 2003 Sep;96(9):663-71. (
  • Walter K, Tansek M, Tobias ES, Ikegawa S, Coucke P, Hyland J, Mortier G, Iwaya T, Nishimura G, Superti-Furga A, Unger S. COL2A1-related skeletal dysplasias with predominant metaphyseal involvement. Am J Med Genet A. 2007 Jan 15;143A(2):161-7. (


The resources on this site should not be used as a substitute for professional medical care or advice. Users seeking information about a personal genetic disease, syndrome, or condition should consult with a qualified healthcare professional. See How can I find a genetics professional in my area? ( in the Handbook.

Reviewed: July 2008
Published: February 8, 2016