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Riboflavin transporter deficiency neuronopathy
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Reviewed January 2016
What is riboflavin transporter deficiency neuronopathy?
Riboflavin transporter deficiency neuronopathy is a disorder that affects nerve cells (neurons). Affected individuals typically have hearing loss caused by nerve damage in the inner ear (sensorineural hearing loss) and signs of damage to other nerves.
In addition to nerves in the inner ear, riboflavin transporter deficiency neuronopathy involves nerves found in the part of the brain that is connected to the spinal cord (the brainstem), specifically in a region of the brainstem known as the pontobulbar region. Damage to these nerves causes paralysis of the muscles controlled by them, a condition called pontobulbar palsy. Nerves in the pontobulbar region help control several voluntary muscle activities, including breathing, speaking, and moving the limbs. As a result of pontobulbar palsy, people with riboflavin transporter deficiency neuronopathy can have breathing problems; slurred speech; and muscle weakness in the face, neck, shoulders, and limbs. Affected individuals can also have muscle stiffness (spasticity) and exaggerated reflexes.
The age at which riboflavin transporter deficiency neuronopathy begins varies from infancy to young adulthood. When the condition begins in infancy, the first symptom is often breathing problems caused by nerve damage, which can be life-threatening. When the condition begins in children or young adults, sensorineural hearing loss usually occurs first, followed by signs of pontobulbar palsy.
If not treated, the signs and symptoms of riboflavin transporter deficiency neuronopathy worsen over time. Severe breathing problems and respiratory infections are the usual cause of death in people with this condition. Without treatment, affected infants typically survive less than one year. However, those who develop the condition after age 4 often survive more than 10 years.
Riboflavin transporter deficiency neuronopathy encompasses two conditions that were once considered distinct disorders: Brown-Vialetto-Van Laere syndrome (BVVLS) and Fazio-Londe disease. The two conditions have similar signs and symptoms, but Fazio-Londe disease does not include sensorineural hearing loss. Because these two conditions share a genetic cause and have overlapping features, researchers determined that they are forms of a single disorder.
How common is riboflavin transporter deficiency neuronopathy?
Riboflavin transporter deficiency neuronopathy is a rare condition. Approximately 100 cases have been reported in the scientific literature.
What genes are related to riboflavin transporter deficiency neuronopathy?
Riboflavin transporter deficiency neuronopathy is caused by mutations in the SLC52A2 or SLC52A3 gene. These genes provide instructions for making related proteins called riboflavin transporters: RFVT2 is produced from the SLC52A2 gene, and RFVT3 is produced from the SLC52A3 gene. Both proteins move (transport) a vitamin called riboflavin (also called vitamin B2) across the cell membrane. Riboflavin cannot be made by the body, so it must be obtained from the food a person eats. The RFVT3 protein is found at especially high levels in cells of the small intestine and is important for absorbing riboflavin during digestion so that the vitamin can be used in the body. The RFVT2 protein is found in cells of the brain and spinal cord and is important for ensuring that these tissues have enough riboflavin for proper functioning.
In the cells of the body, riboflavin is the core component of molecules called flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) and flavin mononucleotide (FMN). FAD and FMN are involved in many different chemical reactions and are required for a variety of cellular processes. One important role of these molecules is in the production of energy for cells. FAD and FMN are also involved in the breakdown (metabolism) of carbohydrates, fats, and proteins.
Mutations in the SLC52A2 or SLC52A3 gene lead to an abnormal riboflavin transporter protein with impaired ability to transport riboflavin. Consequently, there is a reduction of riboflavin available in the body. However, it is unclear how these changes lead to the nerve problems characteristic of riboflavin transporter deficiency neuronopathy.
How do people inherit riboflavin transporter deficiency neuronopathy?
Riboflavin transporter deficiency neuronopathy usually follows an autosomal recessive pattern of inheritance, which means both copies of the gene in each cell have mutations. The parents of an individual with an autosomal recessive condition each carry one copy of the mutated gene, but they typically do not show signs and symptoms of the condition.
Where can I find information about diagnosis or management of riboflavin transporter deficiency neuronopathy?
These resources address the diagnosis or management of riboflavin transporter deficiency neuronopathy and may include treatment providers.
General information about the diagnosis and management of genetic conditions is available in the Handbook. Read more about genetic testing, particularly the difference between clinical tests and research tests.
To locate a healthcare provider, see How can I find a genetics professional in my area? in the Handbook.
Where can I find additional information about riboflavin transporter deficiency neuronopathy?
You may find the following resources about riboflavin transporter deficiency neuronopathy helpful. These materials are written for the general public.
You may also be interested in these resources, which are designed for healthcare professionals and researchers.
What other names do people use for riboflavin transporter deficiency neuronopathy?
What if I still have specific questions about riboflavin transporter deficiency neuronopathy?
Where can I find general information about genetic conditions?
The Handbook provides basic information about genetics in clear language.
These links provide additional genetics resources that may be useful.
What glossary definitions help with understanding riboflavin transporter deficiency neuronopathy?
adenine ; autosomal ; autosomal recessive ; brainstem ; breakdown ; cell ; cell membrane ; deficiency ; digestion ; gene ; inheritance ; intestine ; metabolism ; motor ; motor neuron ; neuron ; palsy ; pattern of inheritance ; protein ; recessive ; respiratory ; sensorineural ; sensorineural hearing loss ; spasticity ; symptom ; syndrome ; voluntary muscle
You may find definitions for these and many other terms in the Genetics Home Reference Glossary.
See also Understanding Medical Terminology.
References (10 links)
The resources on this site should not be used as a substitute for professional medical care or advice. Users seeking information about a personal genetic disease, syndrome, or condition should consult with a qualified healthcare professional. See How can I find a genetics professional in my area? in the Handbook.