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Genetics Home Reference: your guide to understanding genetic conditions     A service of the U.S. National Library of Medicine®

Osteoglophonic dysplasia

Reviewed July 2013

What is osteoglophonic dysplasia?

Osteoglophonic dysplasia is a condition characterized by abnormal bone growth that leads to severe head and face (craniofacial) abnormalities, dwarfism, and other features. The term osteoglophonic refers to the bones (osteo-) having distinctive hollowed out (-glophonic) areas that appear as holes on x-ray images.

Premature fusion of certain bones in the skull (craniosynostosis) typically occurs in osteoglophonic dysplasia. The craniosynostosis associated with this disorder may give the head a tall appearance, often referred to in the medical literature as a tower-shaped skull, or a relatively mild version of a deformity called a cloverleaf skull. Characteristic facial features in people with osteoglophonic dysplasia include a prominent forehead (frontal bossing), widely spaced eyes (hypertelorism), flattening of the bridge of the nose and of the middle of the face (midface hypoplasia), a large tongue (macroglossia), a protruding jaw (prognathism), and a short neck. People with this condition usually have no visible teeth because the teeth never emerge from the jaw (clinical anodontia). In addition, the gums are often overgrown (hypertrophic gingiva).

Infants with osteoglophonic dysplasia often experience failure to thrive, which means they do not gain weight and grow at the expected rate. Affected individuals have short, bowed legs and arms and are short in stature. They also have flat feet and short, broad hands and fingers.

The life expectancy of people with osteoglophonic dysplasia depends on the extent of their craniofacial abnormalities; those that obstruct the air passages and affect the mouth and teeth can lead to respiratory problems and cause difficulty with eating and drinking. Despite the skull abnormalities, intelligence is generally not affected in this disorder.

How common is osteoglophonic dysplasia?

Osteoglophonic dysplasia is a rare disorder; its prevalence is unknown. Only about 15 cases have been reported in the medical literature.

What genes are related to osteoglophonic dysplasia?

Osteoglophonic dysplasia is caused by mutations in the FGFR1 gene, which provides instructions for making a protein called fibroblast growth factor receptor 1. This protein is one of four fibroblast growth factor receptors, which are related proteins that bind (attach) to other proteins called fibroblast growth factors. The growth factors and their receptors are involved in important processes such as cell division, regulation of cell growth and maturation, formation of blood vessels, wound healing, and embryonic development. In particular, they play a major role in skeletal development.

The FGFR1 protein spans the cell membrane, so that one end of the protein remains inside the cell and the other end projects from the outer surface of the cell. When a fibroblast growth factor binds to the part of the FGFR1 protein outside the cell, the receptor triggers a cascade of chemical reactions inside the cell that instruct the cell to undergo certain changes, such as maturing to take on specialized functions. The FGFR1 protein is thought to play an important role in the development of the nervous system. This protein may also help regulate the growth of long bones, such as the large bones in the arms and legs.

FGFR1 gene mutations that cause osteoglophonic dysplasia change single building blocks (amino acids) in the FGFR1 protein. The altered FGFR1 protein appears to cause prolonged signaling, which promotes premature fusion of bones in the skull and disrupts the regulation of bone growth in the arms and legs.

Related Gene(s)

Changes in this gene are associated with osteoglophonic dysplasia.

  • FGFR1

How do people inherit osteoglophonic dysplasia?

This condition is inherited in an autosomal dominant pattern, which means one copy of the altered gene in each cell is sufficient to cause the disorder. Most cases result from new mutations in the gene and occur in people with no history of the disorder in their family. However, some affected individuals inherit the mutation from an affected parent.

Where can I find information about diagnosis or management of osteoglophonic dysplasia?

These resources address the diagnosis or management of osteoglophonic dysplasia and may include treatment providers.

  • Genetic Testing Registry: Osteoglophonic dysplasia (
  • International Skeletal Dysplasia Registry, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center (
  • Seattle Children's Hospital: Dwarfism and Bone Dysplasias (

You might also find information on the diagnosis or management of osteoglophonic dysplasia in Educational resources and Patient support.

General information about the diagnosis ( and management ( of genetic conditions is available in the Handbook. Read more about genetic testing (, particularly the difference between clinical tests and research tests (

To locate a healthcare provider, see How can I find a genetics professional in my area? ( in the Handbook.

Where can I find additional information about osteoglophonic dysplasia?

You may find the following resources about osteoglophonic dysplasia helpful. These materials are written for the general public.

You may also be interested in these resources, which are designed for healthcare professionals and researchers.

What other names do people use for osteoglophonic dysplasia?

  • Fairbank-Keats syndrome
  • OGD
  • osteoglophonic dwarfism

For more information about naming genetic conditions, see the Genetics Home Reference Condition Naming Guidelines ( and How are genetic conditions and genes named? ( in the Handbook.

What if I still have specific questions about osteoglophonic dysplasia?

Ask the Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center (

What glossary definitions help with understanding osteoglophonic dysplasia?

acids ; autosomal ; autosomal dominant ; cell ; cell division ; cell membrane ; craniofacial ; craniosynostosis ; dwarfism ; dysplasia ; embryonic ; failure to thrive ; fibroblast ; gene ; gingiva ; growth factor ; gums ; hypertelorism ; hypertrophic ; hypoplasia ; inherit ; inherited ; macroglossia ; mutation ; nervous system ; prevalence ; prognathism ; protein ; receptor ; respiratory ; stature ; syndrome

You may find definitions for these and many other terms in the Genetics Home Reference Glossary.


  • Farrow EG, Davis SI, Mooney SD, Beighton P, Mascarenhas L, Gutierrez YR, Pitukcheewanont P, White KE. Extended mutational analyses of FGFR1 in osteoglophonic dysplasia. Am J Med Genet A. 2006 Mar 1;140(5):537-9. (
  • Shankar VN, Ajila V, Kumar G. Osteoglophonic dysplasia: a case report. J Oral Sci. 2010 Mar;52(1):167-71. (
  • Sklower Brooks S, Kassner G, Qazi Q, Keogh MJ, Gorlin RJ. Osteoglophonic dysplasia: review and further delineation of the syndrome. Am J Med Genet. 1996 Dec 11;66(2):154-62. Review. (
  • Sow AJ, Ramli R, Latiff ZA, Ichikawa S, Gray AK, Nordin R, Abd Jabar MN, Primuharsa Putra SH, Siar CH, Econs MJ. Osteoglophonic dysplasia: A 'common' mutation in a rare disease. Clin Genet. 2010 Aug;78(2):197-8. doi: 10.1111/j.1399-0004.2010.01382.x. Epub 2010 Mar 5. (
  • White KE, Cabral JM, Davis SI, Fishburn T, Evans WE, Ichikawa S, Fields J, Yu X, Shaw NJ, McLellan NJ, McKeown C, Fitzpatrick D, Yu K, Ornitz DM, Econs MJ. Mutations that cause osteoglophonic dysplasia define novel roles for FGFR1 in bone elongation. Am J Hum Genet. 2005 Feb;76(2):361-7. Epub 2004 Dec 28. (


The resources on this site should not be used as a substitute for professional medical care or advice. Users seeking information about a personal genetic disease, syndrome, or condition should consult with a qualified healthcare professional. See How can I find a genetics professional in my area? ( in the Handbook.

Reviewed: July 2013
Published: February 8, 2016