Skip Navigation
Genetics Home Reference: your guide to understanding genetic conditions     A service of the U.S. National Library of Medicine®

Meckel syndrome

Reviewed May 2012

What is Meckel syndrome?

Meckel syndrome is a disorder with severe signs and symptoms that affect many parts of the body. The most common features are enlarged kidneys with numerous fluid-filled cysts; an occipital encephalocele, which is a sac-like protrusion of the brain through an opening at the back of the skull; and the presence of extra fingers and toes (polydactyly). Most affected individuals also have a buildup of scar tissue (fibrosis) in the liver.

Other signs and symptoms of Meckel syndrome vary widely among affected individuals. Numerous abnormalities of the brain and spinal cord (central nervous system) have been reported in people with Meckel syndrome, including a group of birth defects known as neural tube defects. These defects occur when a structure called the neural tube, a layer of cells that ultimately develops into the brain and spinal cord, fails to close completely during the first few weeks of embryonic development. Meckel syndrome can also cause problems with development of the eyes and other facial features, heart, bones, urinary system, and genitalia.

Because of their serious health problems, most individuals with Meckel syndrome die before or shortly after birth. Most often, affected infants die of respiratory problems or kidney failure.

How common is Meckel syndrome?

Meckel syndrome affects 1 in 13,250 to 1 in 140,000 people worldwide. It is more common in certain populations; for example, the condition affects about 1 in 9,000 people of Finnish ancestry and about 1 in 3,000 people of Belgian ancestry.

What genes are related to Meckel syndrome?

Meckel syndrome can be caused by mutations in one of at least eight genes. The proteins produced from these genes are known or suspected to play roles in cell structures called cilia. Cilia are microscopic, finger-like projections that stick out from the surface of cells and are involved in signaling pathways that transmit information between cells. Cilia are important for the structure and function of many types of cells, including brain cells and certain cells in the kidneys and liver.

Mutations in the genes associated with Meckel syndrome lead to problems with the structure and function of cilia. Defects in these cell structures probably disrupt important chemical signaling pathways during early development. Although researchers believe that defective cilia are responsible for most of the features of this disorder, it remains unclear how they lead to specific developmental abnormalities of the brain, kidneys, and other parts of the body.

Mutations in the eight genes known to be associated with Meckel syndrome account for about 75 percent of all cases of the condition. In the remaining cases, the genetic cause is unknown. Mutations in several other genes have been identified in people with features similar to those of Meckel syndrome, although it is unclear whether these individuals actually have Meckel syndrome or a related disorder (often described as a "Meckel-like phenotype").

Related Gene(s)

Changes in these genes are associated with Meckel syndrome.

  • B9D1
  • B9D2
  • CC2D2A
  • CEP290
  • MKS1
  • TMEM216
  • TMEM67

How do people inherit Meckel syndrome?

This condition is inherited in an autosomal recessive pattern, which means both copies of the gene in each cell have mutations. The parents of an individual with an autosomal recessive condition each carry one copy of the mutated gene, but they typically do not show signs and symptoms of the condition.

Where can I find information about diagnosis or management of Meckel syndrome?

These resources address the diagnosis or management of Meckel syndrome and may include treatment providers.

  • Genetic Testing Registry: Meckel syndrome, type 10 (
  • Genetic Testing Registry: Meckel syndrome, type 9 (
  • Genetic Testing Registry: Meckel syndrome type 1 (
  • Genetic Testing Registry: Meckel syndrome type 2 (
  • Genetic Testing Registry: Meckel syndrome type 3 (
  • Genetic Testing Registry: Meckel syndrome type 4 (
  • Genetic Testing Registry: Meckel syndrome type 5 (
  • Genetic Testing Registry: Meckel syndrome type 6 (
  • Genetic Testing Registry: Meckel syndrome type 7 (
  • Genetic Testing Registry: Meckel syndrome type 8 (

You might also find information on the diagnosis or management of Meckel syndrome in Educational resources and Patient support.

General information about the diagnosis ( and management ( of genetic conditions is available in the Handbook. Read more about genetic testing (, particularly the difference between clinical tests and research tests (

To locate a healthcare provider, see How can I find a genetics professional in my area? ( in the Handbook.

Where can I find additional information about Meckel syndrome?

You may find the following resources about Meckel syndrome helpful. These materials are written for the general public.

You may also be interested in these resources, which are designed for healthcare professionals and researchers.

What other names do people use for Meckel syndrome?

  • dysencephalia splanchnocystica
  • Meckel-Gruber syndrome
  • MKS

For more information about naming genetic conditions, see the Genetics Home Reference Condition Naming Guidelines ( and How are genetic conditions and genes named? ( in the Handbook.

What if I still have specific questions about Meckel syndrome?

Ask the Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center (

What glossary definitions help with understanding Meckel syndrome?

autosomal ; autosomal recessive ; cell ; central nervous system ; cysts ; embryonic ; fibrosis ; gene ; genitalia ; inherited ; kidney ; nervous system ; neural tube defects ; phenotype ; polydactyly ; recessive ; respiratory ; syndrome ; tissue

You may find definitions for these and many other terms in the Genetics Home Reference Glossary.


  • Logan CV, Abdel-Hamed Z, Johnson CA. Molecular genetics and pathogenic mechanisms for the severe ciliopathies: insights into neurodevelopment and pathogenesis of neural tube defects. Mol Neurobiol. 2011 Feb;43(1):12-26. doi: 10.1007/s12035-010-8154-0. Epub 2010 Nov 27. Review. (
  • Salonen R, Kestilä M, Bergmann C. Clinical utility gene card for: Meckel syndrome. Eur J Hum Genet. 2011 Jul;19(7). doi: 10.1038/ejhg.2010.255. Epub 2011 Feb 2. (
  • Salonen R, Paavola P. Meckel syndrome. J Med Genet. 1998 Jun;35(6):497-501. Review. (
  • Tallila J, Salonen R, Kohlschmidt N, Peltonen L, Kestilä M. Mutation spectrum of Meckel syndrome genes: one group of syndromes or several distinct groups? Hum Mutat. 2009 Aug;30(8):E813-30. doi: 10.1002/humu.21057. (


The resources on this site should not be used as a substitute for professional medical care or advice. Users seeking information about a personal genetic disease, syndrome, or condition should consult with a qualified healthcare professional. See How can I find a genetics professional in my area? ( in the Handbook.

Reviewed: May 2012
Published: February 1, 2016