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Genetics Home Reference: your guide to understanding genetic conditions     A service of the U.S. National Library of Medicine®

Infantile systemic hyalinosis

Reviewed December 2008

What is infantile systemic hyalinosis?

Infantile systemic hyalinosis is a disorder that severely affects many areas of the body, including the skin, joints, bones, and internal organs. Hyalinosis refers to the abnormal accumulation of a clear (hyaline) substance in body tissues. The signs and symptoms of this condition are present at birth or develop within the first few months of life. Infantile systemic hyalinosis is characterized by painful skin bumps that frequently appear on the hands, neck, scalp, ears, and nose. They also develop in joint creases and the genital region. These skin bumps may be large or small and often increase in number over time.

Lumps of noncancerous tissue also form in the muscles and internal organs of children with infantile systemic hyalinosis, causing pain and severe complications. Most affected individuals develop a condition called protein-losing enteropathy due to the formation of lumps in their intestines. This condition results in severe diarrhea, failure to gain weight and grow at the expected rate (failure to thrive), and general wasting and weight loss (cachexia).

Infantile systemic hyalinosis is also characterized by overgrowth of the gums (gingival hypertrophy). Additionally, people with this condition have joint deformities (contractures) that impair movement. Affected individuals may grow slowly and have bone abnormalities.

Although children with infantile systemic hyalinosis have severe physical limitations, mental development is typically normal. Affected individuals often do not survive beyond early childhood due to chronic diarrhea and recurrent infections.

How common is infantile systemic hyalinosis?

The prevalence of infantile systemic hyalinosis is unknown. Fewer than 20 people with this disorder have been reported.

What genes are related to infantile systemic hyalinosis?

Mutations in the ANTXR2 gene (also known as the CMG2 gene) cause infantile systemic hyalinosis. The ANTXR2 gene provides instructions for making a protein involved in the formation of tiny blood vessels (capillaries). Researchers believe that the ANTXR2 protein is also important for maintaining the structure of basement membranes, which are thin, sheet-like structures that separate and support cells in many tissues.

The signs and symptoms of infantile systemic hyalinosis are caused by the accumulation of a hyaline substance in different parts of the body. The nature of this substance is not well known, but it is likely made up of protein and sugar molecules. Researchers suspect that mutations in the ANTXR2 gene disrupt the formation of basement membranes, allowing the hyaline substance to leak through and build up in various body tissues.

Related Gene(s)

Changes in this gene are associated with infantile systemic hyalinosis.

  • ANTXR2

How do people inherit infantile systemic hyalinosis?

This condition is inherited in an autosomal recessive pattern, which means both copies of the gene in each cell have mutations. The parents of an individual with an autosomal recessive condition each carry one copy of the mutated gene, but they typically do not show signs and symptoms of the condition.

Where can I find information about diagnosis or management of infantile systemic hyalinosis?

These resources address the diagnosis or management of infantile systemic hyalinosis and may include treatment providers.

  • Gene Review: Hyalinosis, Inherited Systemic (
  • Genetic Testing Registry: Hyaline fibromatosis syndrome (
  • MedlinePlus Encyclopedia: Protein-losing enteropathy (

You might also find information on the diagnosis or management of infantile systemic hyalinosis in Educational resources and Patient support.

General information about the diagnosis ( and management ( of genetic conditions is available in the Handbook. Read more about genetic testing (, particularly the difference between clinical tests and research tests (

To locate a healthcare provider, see How can I find a genetics professional in my area? ( in the Handbook.

Where can I find additional information about infantile systemic hyalinosis?

You may find the following resources about infantile systemic hyalinosis helpful. These materials are written for the general public.

You may also be interested in these resources, which are designed for healthcare professionals and researchers.

What other names do people use for infantile systemic hyalinosis?

  • inherited systemic hyalinosis

For more information about naming genetic conditions, see the Genetics Home Reference Condition Naming Guidelines ( and How are genetic conditions and genes named? ( in the Handbook.

What if I still have specific questions about infantile systemic hyalinosis?

Ask the Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center (

What glossary definitions help with understanding infantile systemic hyalinosis?

autosomal ; autosomal recessive ; basement membranes ; cachexia ; capillaries ; cell ; chronic ; failure to thrive ; gene ; gingival ; gums ; hypertrophy ; inherited ; joint ; prevalence ; protein ; recessive ; tissue ; wasting

You may find definitions for these and many other terms in the Genetics Home Reference Glossary.


  • Antaya RJ, Cajaiba MM, Madri J, Lopez MA, Ramirez MC, Martignetti JA, Reyes-Múgica M. Juvenile hyaline fibromatosis and infantile systemic hyalinosis overlap associated with a novel mutation in capillary morphogenesis protein-2 gene. Am J Dermatopathol. 2007 Feb;29(1):99-103. (
  • Dowling O, Difeo A, Ramirez MC, Tukel T, Narla G, Bonafe L, Kayserili H, Yuksel-Apak M, Paller AS, Norton K, Teebi AS, Grum-Tokars V, Martin GS, Davis GE, Glucksman MJ, Martignetti JA. Mutations in capillary morphogenesis gene-2 result in the allelic disorders juvenile hyaline fibromatosis and infantile systemic hyalinosis. Am J Hum Genet. 2003 Oct;73(4):957-66. Epub 2003 Sep 12. (
  • Gene Review: Hyalinosis, Inherited Systemic (
  • Hanks S, Adams S, Douglas J, Arbour L, Atherton DJ, Balci S, Bode H, Campbell ME, Feingold M, Keser G, Kleijer W, Mancini G, McGrath JA, Muntoni F, Nanda A, Teare MD, Warman M, Pope FM, Superti-Furga A, Futreal PA, Rahman N. Mutations in the gene encoding capillary morphogenesis protein 2 cause juvenile hyaline fibromatosis and infantile systemic hyalinosis. Am J Hum Genet. 2003 Oct;73(4):791-800. Epub 2003 Aug 21. (
  • Lindvall LE, Kormeili T, Chen E, Ramirez MC, Grum-Tokars V, Glucksman MJ, Martignetti JA, Zaragoza MV, Dyson SW. Infantile systemic hyalinosis: Case report and review of the literature. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2008 Feb;58(2):303-7. doi: 10.1016/j.jaad.2007.06.008. Review. (


The resources on this site should not be used as a substitute for professional medical care or advice. Users seeking information about a personal genetic disease, syndrome, or condition should consult with a qualified healthcare professional. See How can I find a genetics professional in my area? ( in the Handbook.

Reviewed: December 2008
Published: February 8, 2016