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Adenosine monophosphate deaminase deficiency
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Reviewed July 2008
What is adenosine monophosphate deaminase deficiency?
Adenosine monophosphate (AMP) deaminase deficiency is a condition that can affect the muscles used for movement (skeletal muscles). People with this condition do not make enough of an enzyme called AMP deaminase. In most people, AMP deaminase deficiency does not cause any symptoms. People who do experience symptoms typically have muscle pain (myalgia) or weakness after exercise or prolonged physical activity. They often get tired more quickly and stay tired longer than would normally be expected. Some affected individuals have more severe symptoms, but it is unclear whether these symptoms are due solely to a lack of AMP deaminase or additional factors. Muscle weakness is typically apparent beginning in childhood or early adulthood.
Researchers have proposed three types of AMP deaminase deficiency, which are distinguished by their symptoms and genetic cause.
How common is adenosine monophosphate deaminase deficiency?
AMP deaminase deficiency is one of the most common inherited muscle disorders in Caucasians, affecting 1 in 50 to 100 people. The prevalence is lower in African-Americans, affecting an estimated 1 in 40,000 people, and the condition is even less common in the Japanese population.
What genes are related to adenosine monophosphate deaminase deficiency?
Mutations in the AMPD1 gene cause AMP deaminase deficiency. The AMPD1 gene provides instructions for producing an enzyme called AMP deaminase. This enzyme is found in skeletal muscle, where it plays a role in producing energy within muscle cells. Mutations in the AMPD1 gene disrupt the function of AMP deaminase and impair the muscle cells' ability to produce energy. This lack of energy can lead to myalgia or other muscle problems associated with AMP deaminase deficiency.
The three types of AMP deaminase deficiency are known as the inherited type, acquired type, and coincidental inherited type.
Individuals with the inherited type have a mutation in both copies of the AMPD1 gene in each cell. Most people are asymptomatic, meaning they have no symptoms. Some people with AMP deaminase deficiency experience muscle weakness or pain following exercise.
The acquired type occurs in people who have decreased levels of AMP deaminase due to the presence of a muscle or joint condition.
People with the coincidental inherited type have a mutation in both copies of the AMPD1 gene. Additionally, they have a separate joint or muscle disorder. Some individuals experience more severe joint or muscle symptoms related to their disorder if they have AMP deaminase deficiency than do people without this enzyme deficiency. Most, however, do not have any symptoms associated with AMP deaminase deficiency.
It is not known why most people with this condition do not experience symptoms. Researchers speculate that additional mutations in other genes may be involved.
Read more about the AMPD1 gene.
How do people inherit adenosine monophosphate deaminase deficiency?
This condition is inherited in an autosomal recessive pattern, which means both copies of the gene in each cell have mutations. The parents of an individual with an autosomal recessive condition each carry one copy of the mutated gene, but they typically do not show signs and symptoms of the condition.
Where can I find information about diagnosis or management of adenosine monophosphate deaminase deficiency?
These resources address the diagnosis or management of adenosine monophosphate deaminase deficiency and may include treatment providers.
To locate a healthcare provider, see How can I find a genetics professional in my area? in the Handbook.
Where can I find additional information about adenosine monophosphate deaminase deficiency?
You may find the following resources about adenosine monophosphate deaminase deficiency helpful. These materials are written for the general public.
You may also be interested in these resources, which are designed for healthcare professionals and researchers.
What other names do people use for adenosine monophosphate deaminase deficiency?
What if I still have specific questions about adenosine monophosphate deaminase deficiency?
Where can I find general information about genetic conditions?
The Handbook provides basic information about genetics in clear language.
These links provide additional genetics resources that may be useful.
What glossary definitions help with understanding adenosine monophosphate deaminase deficiency?
asymptomatic ; autosomal ; autosomal recessive ; cell ; deficiency ; enzyme ; gene ; inherited ; joint ; muscle cells ; mutation ; myalgia ; nucleotide ; population ; prevalence ; recessive ; skeletal muscle
You may find definitions for these and many other terms in the Genetics Home Reference Glossary.
See also Understanding Medical Terminology.
References (7 links)
The resources on this site should not be used as a substitute for professional medical care or advice. Users seeking information about a personal genetic disease, syndrome, or condition should consult with a qualified healthcare professional. See How can I find a genetics professional in my area? in the Handbook.