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Acral peeling skin syndrome
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Reviewed April 2014
What is acral peeling skin syndrome?
Acral peeling skin syndrome is a skin disorder characterized by painless peeling of the top layer of skin. The term "acral" refers to the fact that the skin peeling in this condition is most apparent on the hands and feet. Occasionally, peeling also occurs on the arms and legs. The peeling is usually evident from birth, although the condition can also begin in childhood or later in life. Skin peeling is made worse by exposure to heat, humidity and other forms of moisture, and friction. The underlying skin may be temporarily red and itchy, but it typically heals without scarring. Acral peeling skin syndrome is not associated with any other health problems.
How common is acral peeling skin syndrome?
Acral peeling skin syndrome is a rare condition, with several dozen cases reported in the medical literature. However, because its signs and symptoms tend to be mild and similar to those of other skin disorders, the condition is likely underdiagnosed.
What genes are related to acral peeling skin syndrome?
Acral peeling skin syndrome is caused by mutations in the TGM5 gene. This gene provides instructions for making an enzyme called transglutaminase 5, which is a component of the outer layer of skin (the epidermis). Transglutaminase 5 plays a critical role in the formation of a structure called the cornified cell envelope, which surrounds epidermal cells and helps the skin form a protective barrier between the body and its environment.
TGM5 gene mutations reduce the production of transglutaminase 5 or prevent cells from making any of this protein. A shortage of transglutaminase 5 weakens the cornified cell envelope, which allows the outermost cells of the epidermis to separate easily from the underlying skin and peel off. This peeling is most noticeable on the hands and feet probably because those areas tend to be heavily exposed to moisture and friction.
Read more about the TGM5 gene.
How do people inherit acral peeling skin syndrome?
This condition is inherited in an autosomal recessive pattern, which means both copies of the gene in each cell have mutations. The parents of an individual with an autosomal recessive condition each carry one copy of the mutated gene, but they typically do not show signs and symptoms of the condition.
Where can I find information about diagnosis or management of acral peeling skin syndrome?
These resources address the diagnosis or management of acral peeling skin syndrome and may include treatment providers.
General information about the diagnosis and management of genetic conditions is available in the Handbook. Read more about genetic testing, particularly the difference between clinical tests and research tests.
To locate a healthcare provider, see How can I find a genetics professional in my area? in the Handbook.
Where can I find additional information about acral peeling skin syndrome?
You may find the following resources about acral peeling skin syndrome helpful. These materials are written for the general public.
You may also be interested in these resources, which are designed for healthcare professionals and researchers.
What other names do people use for acral peeling skin syndrome?
What if I still have specific questions about acral peeling skin syndrome?
Where can I find general information about genetic conditions?
The Handbook provides basic information about genetics in clear language.
These links provide additional genetics resources that may be useful.
What glossary definitions help with understanding acral peeling skin syndrome?
You may find definitions for these and many other terms in the Genetics Home Reference Glossary.
See also Understanding Medical Terminology.
References (5 links)
The resources on this site should not be used as a substitute for professional medical care or advice. Users seeking information about a personal genetic disease, syndrome, or condition should consult with a qualified healthcare professional. See How can I find a genetics professional in my area? in the Handbook.