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22q11.2 duplication is a condition caused by an extra copy of a small piece of chromosome 22. The duplication occurs near the middle of the chromosome at a location designated q11.2.
The features of this condition vary widely, even among members of the same family. Affected individuals may have developmental delay, intellectual disability, slow growth leading to short stature, and weak muscle tone (hypotonia). Many people with the duplication have no apparent physical or intellectual disabilities.
The prevalence of the 22q11.2 duplication in the general population is difficult to determine. Because many individuals with this duplication have no associated symptoms, their duplication may never be detected.
Most people tested for the 22q11.2 duplication have come to medical attention as a result of developmental delay or other problems affecting themselves or a family member. In one study, about 1 in 700 people tested for these reasons had the 22q11.2 duplication. Overall, more than 60 individuals with the duplication have been identified.
People with 22q11.2 duplication have an extra copy of some genetic material at position q11.2 on chromosome 22. In most cases, this extra genetic material consists of a sequence of about 3 million DNA building blocks (base pairs), also written as 3 megabases (Mb).
The 3 Mb duplicated region contains 30 to 40 genes. For many of these genes, little is known about their function. A small percentage of affected individuals have a shorter duplication in the same region. Researchers are working to determine which duplicated genes may contribute to the developmental delay and other problems that sometimes affect people with this condition.
Changes involving this chromosome are associated with 22q11.2 duplication.
The inheritance of 22q11.2 duplication is considered autosomal dominant because the duplication affects one of the two copies of chromosome 22 in each cell. About 70 percent of affected individuals inherit the duplication from a parent. In other cases, the duplication is not inherited and instead occurs as a random event during the formation of reproductive cells (eggs and sperm) or in early fetal development. These affected people typically have no history of the disorder in their family, although they can pass the duplication to their children.
These resources address the diagnosis or management of 22q11.2 duplication and may include treatment providers.
You might also find information on the diagnosis or management of 22q11.2 duplication in Educational resources and Patient support.
General information about the diagnosis (http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/handbook/consult/diagnosis) and management (http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/handbook/consult/treatment) of genetic conditions is available in the Handbook. Read more about genetic testing (http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/handbook/testing), particularly the difference between clinical tests and research tests (http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/handbook/testing/researchtesting).
To locate a healthcare provider, see How can I find a genetics professional in my area? (http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/handbook/consult/findingprofessional) in the Handbook.
You may find the following resources about 22q11.2 duplication helpful. These materials are written for the general public.
You may also be interested in these resources, which are designed for healthcare professionals and researchers.
For more information about naming genetic conditions, see the Genetics Home Reference Condition Naming Guidelines (http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/ConditionNameGuide) and How are genetic conditions and genes named? (http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/handbook/mutationsanddisorders/naming) in the Handbook.
Ask the Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center (https://rarediseases.info.nih.gov/gard).
autosomal ; autosomal dominant ; cell ; chromosome ; developmental delay ; disabilities ; disability ; DNA ; duplication ; hypotonia ; inherit ; inheritance ; inherited ; Mb ; muscle tone ; population ; prevalence ; reproductive cells ; short stature ; sperm ; stature ; syndrome
You may find definitions for these and many other terms in the Genetics Home Reference Glossary.
The resources on this site should not be used as a substitute for professional medical care or advice. Users seeking information about a personal genetic disease, syndrome, or condition should consult with a qualified healthcare professional. See How can I find a genetics professional in my area? (http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/handbook/consult/findingprofessional) in the Handbook.