|A service of the U.S. National Library of Medicine®|
On this page:
Reviewed January 2015
What is 22q11.2 duplication?
22q11.2 duplication is a condition caused by an extra copy of a small piece of chromosome 22. The duplication occurs near the middle of the chromosome at a location designated q11.2.
The features of this condition vary widely, even among members of the same family. Affected individuals may have developmental delay, intellectual disability, slow growth leading to short stature, and weak muscle tone (hypotonia). Many people with the duplication have no apparent physical or intellectual disabilities.
How common is 22q11.2 duplication?
The prevalence of the 22q11.2 duplication in the general population is difficult to determine. Because many individuals with this duplication have no associated symptoms, their duplication may never be detected.
Most people tested for the 22q11.2 duplication have come to medical attention as a result of developmental delay or other problems affecting themselves or a family member. In one study, about 1 in 700 people tested for these reasons had the 22q11.2 duplication. Overall, more than 60 individuals with the duplication have been identified.
What are the genetic changes related to 22q11.2 duplication?
People with 22q11.2 duplication have an extra copy of some genetic material at position q11.2 on chromosome 22. In most cases, this extra genetic material consists of a sequence of about 3 million DNA building blocks (base pairs), also written as 3 megabases (Mb).
The 3 Mb duplicated region contains 30 to 40 genes. For many of these genes, little is known about their function. A small percentage of affected individuals have a shorter duplication in the same region. Researchers are working to determine which duplicated genes may contribute to the developmental delay and other problems that sometimes affect people with this condition.
Read more about chromosome 22.
Can 22q11.2 duplication be inherited?
The inheritance of 22q11.2 duplication is considered autosomal dominant because the duplication affects one of the two copies of chromosome 22 in each cell. About 70 percent of affected individuals inherit the duplication from a parent. In other cases, the duplication is not inherited and instead occurs as a random event during the formation of reproductive cells (eggs and sperm) or in early fetal development. These affected people typically have no history of the disorder in their family, although they can pass the duplication to their children.
Where can I find information about diagnosis or management of 22q11.2 duplication?
These resources address the diagnosis or management of 22q11.2 duplication and may include treatment providers.
General information about the diagnosis and management of genetic conditions is available in the Handbook. Read more about genetic testing, particularly the difference between clinical tests and research tests.
To locate a healthcare provider, see How can I find a genetics professional in my area? in the Handbook.
Where can I find additional information about 22q11.2 duplication?
You may find the following resources about 22q11.2 duplication helpful. These materials are written for the general public.
You may also be interested in these resources, which are designed for healthcare professionals and researchers.
What other names do people use for 22q11.2 duplication?
What if I still have specific questions about 22q11.2 duplication?
Where can I find general information about genetic conditions?
The Handbook provides basic information about genetics in clear language.
These links provide additional genetics resources that may be useful.
What glossary definitions help with understanding 22q11.2 duplication?
autosomal ; autosomal dominant ; cell ; chromosome ; developmental delay ; disabilities ; disability ; DNA ; duplication ; hypotonia ; inherit ; inheritance ; inherited ; Mb ; muscle tone ; population ; prevalence ; reproductive cells ; short stature ; sperm ; stature ; syndrome
You may find definitions for these and many other terms in the Genetics Home Reference Glossary.
See also Understanding Medical Terminology.
References (9 links)
The resources on this site should not be used as a substitute for professional medical care or advice. Users seeking information about a personal genetic disease, syndrome, or condition should consult with a qualified healthcare professional. See How can I find a genetics professional in my area? in the Handbook.